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General soul research-Shaman in Northern Child Medium in South

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發表於 2020-3-11 21:12:28 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
General soul research-Shaman in Northern Child Medium in South

Author :Chang Kai-Chi  張開基

translation: 某君

(You are welcomed to share or reprint but please indicate the source and author)


Overview of Asian Shamanism

About 75,000 years ago, the "volcano winter" of 75,000 years ago caused the extinction of earth species and humans, thousands of surviving humans left East Africa and began a large-scale migration across the continent for food and fortune. Regardless of their immigration path, however, after all, the successful reproduction of the descendants has spread all over the world. It is not yet fully finalized when they were all over Asia. However, it was pushed back from the era of immigration to the Americas across the Bering Strait (the "Bering Strait land bridge" period of the Ice Age); it should be no later than 25,000 years ago, 30,000 or 40,000 years ago or at the earliest. In the past, there have been "new residents" in all parts of Asia (different from the older "Beijing original people" and "Java original people".

According to the study of "cultural anthropology"; the concept of "all things animism" is very old, according to the development process of "clan society".

After the "family" gathers into "clan tribes", based on the primitive people, they respect the nature of heaven and earth, with the fear of all kinds of natural events, hunger, disease, injury, death. They started with one of the most primitive sacrificial rituals, perhaps there was no full-time "priest" or "witch" at the beginning, perhaps just a group of common ideas and the original ritual behavior, and then later there was a leader during the ritual, may the leader be the leader of the "clan", and then the tribal group leads the tribal group because they believe that the leader has a special ability, or because he believes that someone has an ability gain more living materials and win more in the fight against other species and other tribes; thus recommend him as the leader. It is also a natural mechanism of "intellectuality", and it is similar to other primates. However, as the "clan" society has expanded, the details of life have become more and more complicated; the division of labor has become more and more professional; "priests" or "witches" have become more and more professional skills; clan leaders no longer take up this job. Some sacrifices to the mountains and rivers, pray for blessings and disasters, for the tribes to cure the disease and expel the ghosts, there became a full-time position, and someone with born skills were preferred for such position.

If we, in the form of the tombs of the Neanderthal, the representation of the formal funerary objects and the crimson ore powder representing life became a symbol, which mean they had the conception that souls are immortal. The human races in Asia and all over the world have had the concept of "all things animism" and "the souls are immortal after death" at 30000 ~ 40000 years ago. The "ancestor worship" has also begun to sprout and gradually stabilize, which form the most primitive forms of faith.

Of course, if there is faith, there will be various activities of sacrifice and communication, and "Shaman" will come into being. In short, there is such a need, and if there is such work to be done, then naturally there will be such a emergence of that kind of people, this is also a period of human history lack enough understand of the nature and universe. A substantial psychological need, many aspects of the life, need be solved at that time, if they can’t solve it by themselves, they will inevitably turn to professional people. For example, why do you or your family always suffer from illness? Why was fishing and hunting collection always not as good as others? Why do you have a long marriage and are infertile? Why do my spouse family members die prematurely? Why are you often nightmares? These have to be called to help the people in the tribe - "Shaman".

Here, we need discuss "all things animism" a little; in fact, "all things animism" is originally the basic concept of the vast majority of primitive people; when human beings have primary thinking ability, for many fashions cannot be true understand the various natural phenomena and the relationship between human beings and the environment; a basic concept that arises naturally when there is a puzzled problem; some of the predecessors and scholars in "cultural anthropology" must be subdivided into "pre-animism", "animism", "theory of vitality", "vitality is everywhere", etc. is actually an excessive division of existing theory; just like a big 10 kg cheese, then cut the cheese to small piece, or even cheese powder, and then give the these cheese different names/definitions. This is a practice of increasing trouble. Because "all things are animated" not only prevailed tens of thousands of years ago, even some primitive peoples still existing around the world today still retain this concept, even more than even the areas that have been distributed; still retain some "all things have spirits” for the Chinese; of course, it is not the primitive nation of Primitive tribe, even with a glorious history and a high spiritual civilization; but most people still believe that mountains and trees are "spiritual" (or god),  even tables and chairs, chopsticks, and brooms have "spirit", which cannot be insulted(people need respect these spirit). Therefore, the author believes that the so-called " animism " and "everything has sprit" and so on are actually just changing the soup without changing the medicine, just playing with the nouns and unconventional mentality. (Note: the finer the classification is not a bad thing, but it can't be over-interpreted).

With regard to the word "Shaman", the earliest known historical record is the middle of the 12th century. The word "Shan Man" has been used in the "Three Dynasties of the Northern Alliance" edited by Xu Mengyu in the Southern Song Dynasty of China. The shaman belief that the real person believes in. (Note: "Shan Man(珊蠻)" is the transliteration of the current Chinese "Shaman(薩滿)"). And this so-called "Jurchen belief" is actually only a representative; same as others in northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Greater Siberia, east of the Bering Strait in North America, and the west to the Scandinavian, the Nava Lapland region between the whole of Asia and Europe and the northern Urals. The mainstream connotations of the people of all ethnic groups in Altay are almost identical. It is "there is a spirit of all things, the concept of the soul after human death, the worship of the clan or tribe's ancestral spirit, the worship of nature, the worship of totems, the awe of various gods, animals and plants, and inanimate natural objects and natural phenomena." The classics of writing, there are no religious organizations and specific founders, no temples, no fixed main gods, no unified, standardized religious rituals." The position of "Shaman" is often passed down from generation to generation in the tribe clan. Sometimes there is family inheritance, and sometimes it is passed down from the ingenuity of the people who have this kind of power." Of course, the above is only the earliest written record; in fact, this type of "Asian Northern Shaman Belief" has existed for a long time and has been circulating for tens of thousands of years, and it has continued to this day and has never been interrupted.


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2020-3-11 21:13:43 | 顯示全部樓層
The identity qualification of "Shaman" can be said to be similar,the "Manchu Shaman" in Northeast China is taken as an example; Shaman can be divided into three kinds of origins, the first is "Forced Shaman" "God forced Shaman", usually with innate ability. And then picked up by "God" (in fact, it should be "ancestral soul"). It is usually done in a coercive or defamatory manner, causing serious illness or work and family disappointment. Finally, he/she has to give in and serve as a "shaman." The second is "not selected", but he/she has a strong gifted "media quality" and be able to communicate with ghosts and gods.

Therefore, it is particularly easy to have ghosts and possessives, sometimes even passively. Temporary and contingent is forced to "involve in the possession of God" to account for certain matters or to ask for certain dedication, or to take the initiative to deal with people with difficult problems. The third is from "family inheritance" and even has obvious genetic "spiritual physique", some are voluntary, and some are inherited from the requirements of their own "shaman" relatives. Regarding the first type of "shaman", most of them will get seriously ill, and even fall into a state of coma and death for several days, or the so-called "state of Psychedelic" in modern medicine, or incoherent, and frenzied, like "schizophrenia" In some relevant literature records; such as the "Yakut" who account for the most populous nation in Siberia, their "shaman" source must first go into a coma after a serious illness, about three days, and then reborn, before the experience everything must be re-learned, and then kill a sheep to sacrifice to the gods, and find an old "shaman" to learn all kinds of related knowledge and rituals, in the final stage to climb a "cosmos tree" made up of blades. In order to become a formal "shaman" (Note: the ritual of climbing the ladder is almost in all the people of the "Shaman faith", and in the Chinese Taoist belief system, the Taoist must upgrade through the "crawling ladder" The rituals of the two should have a contextual connection at this point, not just coincidence.

The view of the cosmology and the gods in the "Shaman Faith" is usually divided into "two world" or "three world". The "two world" is more ancient and is only roughly divided into "human world" and "spiritual world", which is for gods and ancestral spirits. In the world of gods and ancestral spirits. The so-called mountain monsters or ghosts are wandering in the world, waiting for opportunities or swearing at people. This is also reason for the "shaman" exist in the tribe. One of the main tasks of communication deflation or force threatening to expel or even kill. Later, the concept of "three world" was derived; the universe was divided into upper, middle and lower bounds, and the upper world was "celestial world". It was the residence of various gods. The middle is the real world where humans and other animals and plants live. The lower layer is "the underworld". It is the residence of the general undead and ghosts;

however, there are two characteristics; one is that there is still no concept of "hell" torture to punish the soul, and the other is the realm of "ancestor". The ancestral souls coexists with “God heaven”, but the environment is not as good as the "God heaven"; but some people's cognition is to classify "ancestral spirits" into "the underworld"; however, because of the concept of pursuing; In the upper or lower bounds; the life of " ancestor soul" is ultimately superior and happy than human, and their status is stronger and happier than people. This is also the main cause of "ancestor worship." It can be said that the "ancestor worship" in the ancient times; the people who resorted to the "ancestral spirits", the "ancestral spirits" sheltered many children and grandchildren, and the "ancestral spirits" demanded less for people and children.  Even the sacrifice for the ancestral spirit is the rewarding behavior of the descendant, with the conviction after being blessed and solved the difficult and ill.

Since the theme of this book is "soul theory", it is necessary to discuss "Whether human beings have the "self-soul view" or the "all things have a spiritual view"?", on this point, you can go back to " Do you have the ability to "self-cognition" or the ability to "environmental awareness" first?" We can look at the evolution of biology, especially all animals; it is currently known that in addition to "orangutans, dolphins, beluga whales, elephants" Apart from the "self-cognition" ability, other animals do not have it; then do other animals have the ability to "environmental awareness"? This is for sure, because the instinct based on survival, in order to forage, courtship, escape danger, for predation and anti-predation, is the basic survival instinct of all animals, and the means of mimicry, camouflage, etc. are also common auxiliary behaviors. Therefore, the first item of animal survival is the ability of "environmental cognition". The ability of "self-cognition" is not important. Even in the social life, the cognition of one's own status still belongs to the category of "environmental cognition".

It is regarded as the ability of "self-cognition". For example, in the monkey group, some young male monkeys, if they can't clearly know their status, want to compete with the monkey king or slap king’s wives, the end will be very miserable. This kind of cognition is the result of "environmental cognition" with intelligence.

Therefore, in the process of evolution, in the struggle against nature, the competition against other animals, and other ethnic groups in the same human race, the first thing to learn is still the ability of "environmental cognition", and then with the gradual improvement of intelligence, the gradual enrichment of imagination began to slowly form the ability of "self-cognition". Therefore, we can imagine; a primitive person first felt when the sky suddenly saw clouds, silver snakes and thunder, thunderous lightning thunder, he first felt Of course, the instinctual fear, even if it is not a close lightning strike, he will instinctively run to escape, perhaps his intelligence is not enough to think about "The sky is angry"; just like other animals in order to survive and hedge instinct reflects only, but if he has the mentality of initial thinking, he also first thinks that " the sky is angry"; instead of "Sky is angry with me", even if there is already a little bit of the "I" concept, not enough to associate with the natural environment.

Therefore, after all, human beings should have the concept of “everything has spirits” first.  Just like the evolution of other animals, it is the first priority to have environmental awareness. It is not important to have "self-cognition" ability. Human beings only need to understand the danger. Knowing the fear of the amazing power of nature, even fearing large predators, avoiding confrontation as much as possible is enough. Therefore, in the era of obscurity, the predecessors will inherit these experiences and teach future generations. Of course, for the incomprehensible phenomenon, they will think there is sprit behind it. so that at least the danger can be avoided as much as possible. When encountering difficulties and unsatisfactory situations in the process of fishing and hunting, they will pray for the most closely related mountains and stones in nature and hope that they can harvest or at least get the basic needs of life.

Therefore, the "all things have a spiritual concept" is the most important, and the "self-cognition" ability, such as "Who am I?", "Where am I from?", "Why should I live?" these questions will slowly emerge in the mind with the growth of intelligence. In fact, the ability of human "self-cognition" and the ability to "self-locate" in nature are gradually formed after a very long evolution of mind. It is definitely not a one-step process, and even a major factor in genetics, this is in the book. The other chapters will be detailed one by one.

 樓主| 發表於 2020-3-11 21:15:45 | 顯示全部樓層
Let’s take a look at the concept of nature worship in the Shaman Faith;

Worship the heavens and the earth, the sun, the moon and the stars, the wind and rain and lightning: these are visible to the naked eye, audible to the ears, and can be felt by the body. The primitive nation is in harmony with nature, and they even live outside in the night. Sitting in the grass, looking up at the sky, there are stars and moon. When the wind blows, they could feel cold. The rain is just right, the vegetation enjoys the precipitation and gets prosperous. It is good food for cattle and sheep. If raining is not enough, people must migrate to find water and grass. The excessive raining may cause flooding. The sun has always been regarded as a source of heat for light and life, and the stars of the night have been running back and forth since ancient times, marking the direction of the road at night. These are all-natural objects that are related to each other, but they are also regarded as spiritual gods by the primitive people, and they worship in the heart with fear.

Worshiping mountains and rivers:

For The primitive people relying on fishing and hunting, the mountain is a natural hunting ground, which provides all kinds of birds and beasts for food, clothing, and bone as tools. However, in addition to technology and weapons, luck is also important. The original ancestors believed that the mountains were mountain gods. They believed that all the birds and beasts in the mountains belonged to the mountain gods. When the hunters went into the mountains to hunt, they could capture the number of beasts and prey, all of which depended on the mercy of the mountain gods. Therefore, the hunters can hunt more than the need. They need prey before the hunting, to hunt enough food and avoid get injured or attacked by beast. For example, in the "Ewenki" in northeastern China, before they go hunting in the mountains, they will find a big tree near the entrance to the mountain. They will use a knife to cut bark of about one square feet, and then mix the white ore powder with water. A face of old man will be painted on the tree, the mountain god statue. Although the image is not perfect, people are still very respectful to bow to it, sometimes even put the incense and meat in front it and apply the blood and meat on his mouth in order to hunt smoothly and safely. As for the waters, for example, the "Hezhe people" are of course worshipping the water gods. Their lives are almost close related to the fish. Even the traditional clothes, shoes and hats are drawn from large fish skins. They often hunt "madam", "big squid" and other rivers in Heilongjiang and some tributaries. Therefore, for the sake of harvest, the first thing to worship is the water god; the "shaman" costume of this nation was originally adopted. The fish skin tailors, the "wings" of the fins on both sides of the shoes, symbolizing that "Shaman" can have the superpower of flying in the sky when exalted.
Worship of the fire: Perhaps the most primitive "fire" of mankind is the forest fire caused by lightning. Therefore, many primitive people think that "fire" comes from heaven and is given by God, so they all worship and dare not arbitrarily scorn。 "Fire" is also a treasure that leads mankind into epoch-making. After human being has controlled fire, it can not only be used to illuminate the original crisis during the fearful night, but also to drive away the beasts, and then use the barbecue to cook the food, so that humans can get much more nutrient from various food. Moreover, reducing the inconvenience of chewing raw meat and deriving diseases and promoting the absorption of nutrients is a very important step in human evolution. IN the earth only humans know how to use fire effectively and generate fire quickly. From the primitive beliefs of the ancestors to the various religious ritual activities of today, "fire" is absolutely indispensable, and "fire" is also regarded as a symbol of light. It is a weapon to expel and defeat all kinds of demons and ghosts. To purify all kinds of cursed or polluted objects, or to cleanse the human body that has been invaded by evil spirits. In some primitive tribe families, the "fire" in the kitchen is on 365 days a year, 24 hours a day, and it keeps burning for a long time. They will NOT let the fire go out, otherwise it will symbolize the decline of the family business and the bad luck.

Worshiping animals: worshiping certain animals for two reasons; one is that many ethnic groups have their own representative animal totems, which may be thought to be related to their own ethnic origin, or that kind of animal hav done something good to their ancestors, so worship it as a sacred object, and strictly forbid any harm, such as "Korean nationality" has the ancient legend of regarding magpie as their ancestor, "Manchu" believes that the crow has saved the lives of his ancestors, the "Ainu" of Japan regard the owl as a god bird, and the large wooden pillar totem of the large owl statue. The American Indians use the eagle (Thunderbird) as the god bird, and the large wooden pillar color drawing of the Thunderbird statue also marks the tribe. The second is the fear of revenge by animal spirits; for example, the Ewenki and Oroqen in northeastern China were originally awed by the bears and considered themselves to be their ancestors. Later, when the guns were introduced, and people began to hunt bears based on their needs, every time they hunted the bears, they held a ceremony, cut the bear’s head, placed it on the tree stand, and used the torch to burn the bear’s head to worship, all claims to be accidentally killed by mistakes is to blame the other ethnic groups, which is of course a little self-deception. Another kind of fear of revenge is not afraid of hurting your own life, but since you believe that "everything is alive," some large and intelligent animals, such as deer, tigers, orangutans, etc., think that after they die, the spirit will alert their same kind. the letter to alert the police. It is not easy for hunters to hunt them later. So the purpose of worship is to eliminate its hatred and revenge.

Totem Worship: The most common is the large penis worship, which is the main worship related to racial reproduction. The Totem could be carved with large trunks and also woven with grass. The next is the various animal totems. The animal is either related to their own tribes, or the animal has helped the tribes before. The history of the large totem column carefully carved out should be shortly, the most primitive is limited by the use of techniques and materials, so some are natural megaliths, mostly intaglio, called " Prehistoric rock paintings, and some nomads will also take materials on the spot, using branches as a frame, and the outer skins of the beasts will become a "spiritual" idol like a beast. However, such idols are temporary in nature, and they are immediately dismantled after the sacrifice. Solution, the animal skin is used for other purposes. It is also useful for the cubs of the bear bears to make a plane bear head avatar, and to pray for worship and blessing.

The worship of the ancestral spirit: it can be imagined; ancestor worship is the result of belief of immortality of the soul. therefore, it must be the "everything is spiritual" belief and natural worship. Human beings must have had the ability of "self-cognition" in the late stage; they began to believe that they have souls, and even after the physical death, the soul will continue to live in another world, so they will think that they are more than themselves. The ancestors who died early, their souls are more free then when they are alive, and happier lives in a better environment than the real world. Moreover, the ancestors care for their descendants and grandchildren as they did during their lifetime, so they can come and go to the real world at any time to bless the children and grandchildren.

They can bless the outstanding children and perform well. Of course, they can punish bad behavior. It is possible to warn certain disasters in advance, to help the children and grandchildren in distress, to help the children and grandchildren to heal, and even help couple with infertility. Of course, these usually have to be communicated through the "Shaman" or through occupy the Shaman’s body to cure the patient’s wound.

 樓主| 發表於 2020-3-11 21:17:08 | 顯示全部樓層
The concept of the soul of the shaman belief

In the "Shaman Faith" system, the universal and common concept of the soul is "the three souls are one"; "one body" of course refers to a fixed body, regardless of any creature; "three souls" (fayangga) It is "Life Soul, Floating Soul, Real Soul".

The life soul is also called main soul (oron hanin), it is the base for all animal to maintain the life. The biological instinct, including sensory perception, emotion, desire, foraging for survival, reproduction for future generations, etc., is produced from the mother's conception and gradually develops. It is the same as the physical life of human or animal. When the physical life is alive, the soul is spread all over the body. At the end of the physical life, the "life soul" leaves the body and disappears. In the various ethnic groups of the "Shaman faith," the "life soul" is given by the god of life, and there is no life without life soul. So the life soul is not created by physical body, but the gods give the woman “life soul” to born baby. At the same time, they believe that people will get sick or hurt because the "life soul" is invaded or damaged before it appears on the flesh. (Note: Although the "Shaman Faith" system attributes this property to the "soul"; however, the author believes that this feature is actually more "Po(魄)" because all the original "Shaman beliefs" In the system, there is almost no concept of "deaf". Therefore, it can only be classified as a noun in the noun. Until the "Manchu Dictionary" edited by Mr. Shuangcheng An in recent years, it is interpreted as "Po(魄)", however, The book is talking about the original "Shaman faith", which is based on the concept of the ancestors at that time.).

The second type is called "floating soul" or “wandering soul" or "thinking soul" (Hanin). This kind of soul is characterized by being able to temporarily float away from the body and even leave the body to go far away, and can communicate with other floating soul, the most obvious example is that all the activities and encounters of people in their dream, whether it is a good ream or nightmare, interaction with anyone, God, ghosts and even animals,  which are all functions of "floating souls". Role, but, because of this, the "floating soul" will also be invaded and frightened and even detained by the outside world; this will cause the child to be frightened, the adult will be lost, and even serious will form a mental illness. Therefore, it is necessary to ask for help. The "shaman" in the family carries out the "soul-hunting" ritual, and the spells and psionics can appease or retrieve this "floating soul" (this "soul-recall " ritual is completely different from the “soul summon” after dead).

For the concept of "floating soul" in the "Shaman Faith" system; another kind of similar effect is derived from it, and the second noun is called "Ideas Soul", and this " Idea Soul" can also float to the outside world. It is unique to human beings, because it is a kind of psychological consciousness, including all ideas, wisdom, skills, expectations, exploration, imagination, thoughts, love, hatred, etc., can be transmitted from a distance, this "idea" is produced the distance of energy, the range of radiation and the extent of influence depends on the strength of the "intention" of the person concerned. If the average person does not practice, the ability of "idea soul" is weak, usually only connected to the family with blood, and loved ones. However, a long-term practice of the old "Shaman" with higher attainments can have a strong "Idea soul" with extraordinary ability, so he/she can communicate the three worlds, go to the world, fly far to engage in all "shaman" duties, The tribes are blessing, healing, and appease the lost soul. Even when necessary, fight with some demons and evil spirits. Moreover, because the "Shaman" has a super "Idea soul" and extraordinary ability, it can also move some natural energy and put it on some bodyguards (known as "blessings" by modern people) for the people to wear. Protecting the body, but also moving the "light" from the body of some helpers, the mind, the weak, the stupid become smart, the protagonist becomes brave and so on.

The third is the most important "true soul" (Fuyangga hanin), also known as "the holy soul, reincarnation soul, body soul", etc., in the "Shaman belief" system, the “true soul" is the true core of the three souls. This is the real "immortal life". Not only can you live forever in the spiritual world, but you can also turn to be a human being again. The “true soul" is the most vital, for the various kinds of flesh. The influence is also the most obvious, which determines a person's basic personality traits, ideological spirit, wisdom, and longevity. However, one thing that must be clarified is that the "reincarnation concept" in the original "Shaman Faith" system is different from the "reincarnation" concept of Buddhism or Hinduism because they believe that "reincarnation" is limited to human beings, which is not same as “three paths reincarnation” Hinduism or “six paths reincarnation” of Buddhism. The Shaman reincarnation was even limited to same family. However, the late "Shaman Faith" was influenced by the introduction of Buddhism, and there was a blending and exchange of the concept of "reincarnation"; of course, major changes have taken place, especially since the Mongolians accepted Lamaism, and the Manchus subsequently accepted it; Therefore, the deep influence of Buddhism's reincarnation concept has also changed the scope of " reincarnation” the world". It is not just a reincarnation or a former family. The evildoers will also be reincarnate as livestock, and the lower ones will be reincarnation as "artemisia” and will never reborn as human.

In the "Shaman Faith" system, the universal and common "Three Souls" concept of the soul; the first "life soul" could be regard as Po(魄). Then the second so-called "floating soul" or "wandering soul" In fact, it cannot be regarded as an independent "spirit" or "soul". At best, it is only one of the functions of "soul". For example, dream although since ancient times, there has been a "dream is a soul travel", the phenomenon, however, we now know that such views are not correct, because most of the "dreams" are just the consciousness activities of our brains; the most common dreams of human beings are actually extension of what we think in the day time. Because most of them are reorganized, it is inevitable that there will be some eccentricities. Of course, we can’t take the overly subjective theory of Freud’s "Analysis of Dreams", but until now, Human studies on "dreams" are still divided into different opinions. In fact, Lucid dream does exist. There were major academic and even scientific discoveries in dreams. It is not a fictional novel. There are even many psychic people or "Shaman" who claim to have "master" in their dreams. It is not a complete lie that master teach a variety of Kung Fu in dream. There were also stories about meeting undead friend or relative in the dream. Some people with strong mental abilities can even have some degree of control over lucid dreams. Therefore, if we are macroscopically facing the "dreams" that we have not yet fully understood, we can say that we can "go out of the body" to travel far away, communicate with other "souls" or "ghosts", or enter the spiritual world in a dream. Sometimes the dreams are even in heaven, or the hell of the underworld, may not be completely a false proverb. However, the real focus must be recognized; the so-called "floating soul" arguments and concepts are actually only the appearance of "intelligence" in vitro or distant "perception", one of the roles of "soul", not another "soul" type or individual.

Therefore, after we have figured it out, we have re-visited a near-real "soul" appearance; in the original "Shaman belief" system, soul, Po(魄) and soul concept and the system of soul and Po have already existed. It existed at that time and still exists today; after all, in the history of human evolution; 30,000 to 40,000 years, which is a very short time, the evolution of physiology is almost negligibly small, and the evolution of "soul" is equally inconspicuous. The concept of the soul is almost not far away. The difference is only in the function, application, and definition.

In the original "Shaman Faith", the problem of the soul's home and residence after the death of the people; most of them are related to the "mountain"; this should be related to the living environment, because the primitive peoples of the north mostly rely on fishing and hunting for a living, and later most of the nomadic people live in the wilderness of the mountains and forests. They are closely related to the "mountain".  Therefore, the most ideal place for ancestors’ souls are naturally mountain and forests. Therefore, the famous mountains are naturally the best destination for the soul of the dead. For example, the Wuxi(烏桓) people in the northern people believe that the souls of the deceased belong to the "Chishan" thousands of miles away. In order to make the souls of the dead go smoothly to the "Chishan", in the funeral, they must burn the clothes that he passed through before his death. The used utensils, even the horses that are often riding, will be killed and burn during funeral. The most important thing is to kill a healthy dog, which is also burned, and can protect the dead souls along the way from other evil spirits. Obstructing interference, you can go through the heavy checkpoints and arrive at the "Chishan" safely.

The "Khitan people" believe that the deceased's souls are returned to the " Black Mountain". All the souls are governed by the mountain gods of "Black Mountain". Therefore, every year, the monarchs lead the masses of the people, and sacrifice the “paper people” and “paper horse” to the god of black mountain. The ceremony is very grand. The Han people of the Central Plains also share the same concept; they believe that all the deceased souls are governed by the "God of Taishan ", and later the "Dongyue Emperor" is a higher honor after the founding of Taoism (Note: From south of Fujin province to Taiwan, in the “spirit observing magic”( 觀靈術), there is also a "Death Mountain" in the underworld, which should be related to the origin and destiny of soul.)

 樓主| 發表於 2020-3-11 21:19:04 | 顯示全部樓層
Shaman’s Costume and holy drum

According to Mircea Eliade, a famous American religious historian born in Romania, defines the "faith of shamanism":

The spiritual world exists and the spirit can influence the individual's life and human society.

The psychic shaman mediate can see the invisible spiritual world.

The spirit has the distinction of goodness and evil.

The psychic shaman can deal with the diseases caused by evil spirits.

The psychic shaman can communicate with the spiritual world through the related Trance ability or method.

The spirit of the Shaman can leave the body and enter the supernatural spiritual world to seek the answer.

The psychic shaman can lead the animal's spirit body as a guide and message.

The psychic shaman can tell or predict the future, or learn about good or bad by divination.

Among the clan tribes of the primitive peoples of the north; the functions of the "Shaman" include: the sacrifice of the whole family, the sacrifice of the ancestors and the large regular festivals; divination prediction, dream solving, healing, exorcism, demons, chasing souls, Hosting wedding funerals, disaster relief, blessing, system, and transportation.

Among them, "extracting ghosts, demons, chasing souls," is the majority of daily dealings, because the belief in ghosts and gods is the common belief of all primitive peoples; therefore, it is necessary to briefly describe the issue of "ghosts" here;

According to the rough survey statistics of the world's 7 billion people, more than 70% of them have "generalized religious beliefs". That is to say: the atheism(no gods and no ghosts) theory accounts for a small proportion of the population, then all religions It is built on the cornerstone of "the soul is not destroyed". Since we believe that people have souls, then we believe that "ghosts" exist at least half of the population;

It is a bit strange to believe that there are "ghosts" and usually "fear of ghosts". However, it will not be surprising to find out after in-depth exploration;

because “fear ghosts" is not just an ancient culture. The legacy of the custom, but even the fear instinct in the spiritual subconscious; because human beings began to realize the existence of the "soul", it has been a very long period of time that belongs to "people and ghosts live together(before discovery of the spiritual world)", this time coincides with the emergence of Shaman, or we can say that human beings need to communicate, negotiate, and struggle with ghosts and gods through Shaman. It is precisely because ghosts and gods (especially ghosts) interfere with the normal life of human beings. The original ancestors believed people will get sick, deliberately injured, fierce, frightened (especially for children).  Children or adults could suddenly lose consciousness and fall into a coma, even cause problem for fishing and hunting.  Homes are uneasy, all are caused by ghosts and evil spirits, so they must pass the ability to communicate with ghosts and gods. The shaman comes to negotiate with him, one way is to sacrifice to meet ghost’s needs, and ghost is urged to leave, another is use force to expel after the polite negotiation. At last the Shaman may even use magic to kill the ghost. (Note: This conception and actuality of negotiations with ghosts and gods and the expulsion with force have continued to occur in many backward areas and civilized societies until today).

The details of "human beings are afraid of ghosts" has been divided into a separate chapter to elaborate; in this chapter, we still talk about the heart and soul of the original children's drama with "Shaman" as the main axis.

Shaman is not only different from ordinary people in intangible identity. They also have specific special signs on costumes and utensils; the most important ones are "Shaman Costume", "Shaman Cap" and “Shaman holy drums." If we agree to treat "Shaman" in a broad sense as a "worker for the gods", it is no doubt that "Shaman Costume" and "Shaman Cap" are probably the most complicate costumes of all religious workers. The "Shaman Drum" is the main instrument. It can be said that from the "Scandinavia" region in the west to the Indian nation in the east, in such a vast area, all Shaman must have drums, or directly called Shaman as "Shaman Drums". It can also be said that "there is no Shaman without drums."

The meaning of "Shaman Costume"

As the name suggests, "Shaman Costume" is a sacred costume exclusively used by the "Shaman". It is not only a symbol of its status, but also has a very practical role。 Between the ethnic and subordinate small clan tribes, the shape and material of the "Shaman Costume" are different, but the role is almost the same; the first is the "protective effect"; most people even call it for "armor", it can be seen that the costume is used to protect the wearing of "shaman", because in the ceremony of interaction with ghosts and gods, not only can avoid unintentional "Heterogeneous energy" damage, even when it is necessary to fight ghosts and gods, Can be used as an effective protective gear. Second, the manifestation of the Shaman identity is not only for the tribes, but also a kind of "skill" in the rituals facing the ghosts and gods. Especially the experienced "old shaman", with various accessories on the costumes and the caps (such as the number of forks of the antlers), can be used to declare that his skill is strong. Some small demons and ghosts will know they are not the match of the Shaman, and the Shaman can achieve the goal of not fighting and defeating the soldiers, even if they encounter opponents with equal strengths. It can also show how much "chips" you have. In the negotiations, so many things that are entangled with ghosts and gods may be quickly solved.


                               
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Among the large primitive peoples with a large population, the materials for the production of "Shaman Costume" are quite particular. In particular, in the fishing and hunting and nomadic tribe in north part, "Shaman costume" are mostly made from deer skin, sometimes using skin of suede. The tribes living along the coast will use whales, walruses, sea lions and seals as the main raw materials. In addition, the "Hezhe" family, hunting big fish in Heilongjiang river for living, will naturally make use of the finest fish skin to make the Costume. Before invention of the metal needle, the main method to make Shaman custom is often to cut and sew, and most of them are sewed with bone bones made of various animal bones and fish bones; the sutures are also made of ligament of mammals. The "strength rope" makes the costume firmer. Some of the costumes will retain the original color, while some will be dyed with natural plant or mineral pigments, and some animal glue will be used to bond some accessories. The oldest accessories are made of animal bones, fish bones or animal skins. Later, with metallurgical technology, various copper and iron ornaments and accessories have become important materials, especially round and smooth bronze mirrors, and conical shapes. The entire set of copper and iron "waist bells" played an important protective function when wearing the costumes for the upper body in various ceremonies.

In the later period, because of the easy availability of plant textiles, the “Shaman Costumes” of many ethnic groups have been made with thick and tough fabrics, and with exquisite embroidery patterns, but the various metal accessories that represent the sacred symbols are still preserved.

The shape of "Shaman costumes" is divided into a single-piece robes, a separate upper and lower skirt, and a lower skirt for the skirt. In addition, there are two-piece lower body trousers, and a sword-shaped colorful skirt. Some will also add "shoulder" to enhance protection, but the more similar ones are "Colorful Spike" and "Long Colored Strip"; the most obvious is that the wide sleeves are extended from the cuff to the underarm, and Some of them have these colored spikes and strips all over the body; sometimes they can be as many as hundreds, long, short, colorful, and when they dance with their arms, it seems like the birds are spreading their wings. In fact, this is also used to emphasize that the shaman could fly like a bird when they leave their body for some task. They can fly fast and with their soul in the three worlds, including upper world, middle world and underworld. Shaman can fight or chase these ghosts / gods, and they can fly like an eagle to increase the flexibility. For some ethnic groups, these strips are not just symbolic, the number of the strips may also represent the count of the ceremony. A beautifully embroidered cloth strip is added after each ritual. Like the medal of a modern soldier, the more the cloth strip represents, the more the experience, the higher the skill.

The ornaments of "Shaman Costume" are mostly made of animal bones, horns, fish bones, copper and iron metal; and some use "joints, chains" to support the costume, which make it feels more powerful. The more important ones are round copper pieces, large and small. Some are flat, some are convex mirrors, which symbolize the sun. The biggest ones on the chest and back are called "heart guards", others are similar to the " demon scope " function, because of the bright light that symbolizes the sun, the demon and ghosts that hide in the shadows are invisible; and because of the power of the sun, the demon and the ghosts is unable to  parry. The count of large and small bronze mirrors sometimes reaches dozens, all of which are protected from the whole body (of Shaman).

In addition, the group of "waist bells" are mostly conical. Bells may up to ten or dozens, and they will make a loud sound when they collide with each other. The purpose to make the Shaman appear more powerful.

There are also a variety of iron rings, iron chains, small decorative iron knives, daggers, iron bells, iron birds, lightning-like iron pieces, all kinds of iron pieces tailored god shapes. Some will be decorated with a large amount of copper coins, which are a kind of ornaments that declare the threat, but it also increases with the number of times the "Shaman" itself performs the ceremony. Therefore, at beginning, a Shaman costume is several kilograms. it could even increase to more than ten kilograms. Costume is draped all over the body, and it is really difficult to beat vigorously during the ceremony. If it is not after long-term training, it is difficult for ordinary people to bear such heavy duties. Moreover, the "Shaman Costume" is even a sacred symbol among the various nationalities. It has an indescribable majesty and status. As the number of ceremonies is more, the energy of the "Shaman costume" itself is stronger, and the higher the level. Most of the time it is stored in a large box. It can be respected and "exhibited" when performing the ceremony, and it must be scented with the finest spices. "Shaman" itself must also be bathed. Shaman can only wear it after praying. Of course, ordinary people are not easy to see, and they are not allowed to touch and flip at will, otherwise they will be regarded as serious embarrassing behavior.


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2020-3-11 21:20:57 | 顯示全部樓層
"Shaman Cap" is also one of the indispensable "Costume" components. It must be worn at the same time as Shaman costume. Moreover, " Shaman Cap" has a more important function; it is used to transfer important message with other living being in the other ghost/god. In the “soul chasing” ritual, all the spiritual messages are captured through the "Shaman Cap", these important messages are used to search the lost soul. During some major sudden situations, no matter the message is good or bad, but also rely on the "Shaman cap" to capture message from spiritual world. Therefore, the "Shaman Cap" is a symbol of the sacred clan tribe. The entire great nation has roughly the same "Shaman Cap" shape, but each of the small clan tribes adds their own unique totem symbols or symbolic decorations; It is enough to represent the important symbol of this clan tribe, and it is inherited by generations. It embodies the elves of the clan tribes and the elves of the alliance and can drive some demon monsters that have been surrendered to serve this Shaman.


                               
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The shape and material of the "Shaman Cap" of different ethnic groups are very different. For example, "Olunchun, Ewenki, Daur, Hezhe" in northeastern China are mostly iron bars as brackets, with "antlers" as the main characters and the count of antlers is an odd number (3,5, 7, 9 ... 15). The number of antlers represent the skill level. holds a large-scale praying ceremony for clan tribe called " Omi Milan (奧米蘭)" at regular intervals. Every time the Shaman do it, the "Shaman" itself will be upgraded to a level. Once Shaman do it once, the fork of the antlers on the "Shaman Cap" can be increased by two. The "Omi Milan" ceremony can be done up to four times. Four "O Milan" ceremonies. It is the top "Shaman" of the highest level of work.

In addition, among these ethnic groups, there is also a copper or iron condor in the antlers, which make the Shaman more majesty and powerful.

The "Shaman Cap" of the "Manchu" is simply a holy bird. It is usually dominated by three pairs, but there are more singular seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, and fifteen.

As for the "Mongolian", because of the later belief in the Buddhist system, the "Shaman Cap" is the five-party crown, which is made of copper pieces in the shape of a lotus petal, engraved with Buddha statues, god trees, copper coins, etc. It is a very late change, and it is difficult to see the meaning of ancient times.

There are two important roles of "Shaman Mask". The first is "Symbol of identity". Because the "Shaman" in the primitive people is an exclusive position, but it is not a full-time job of 365 days a year, only in fixed festivals. This work was only carried out at the ceremony of temporary emergencies. There are other needs for earning a living job on normal days. Therefore, although the identity of the "Shaman" is respected by the tribes, the words and deeds of ordinary people are as ordinary as they are. Perhaps it’s just the uncle who is in the middle of the neighbor, or the big man who raises the sheep’s house on the edge of the mountain. If there is no special “mask”, just put on the “sacred clothes” and put on the cap and go straight into battle. It seems that the natives who are familiar with the situation always lack an authoritative persuasiveness; therefore, the "shaman mask" not only provides the role of the "shaman" itself in the screen and role conversion, but also provides a persuasive symbol. In addition, the "Shaman Mask" is paired with "Costume" and "Shaman Cap", and the "God Drum". The character is immediately converted from "mortal" to " Holy man" or "supernatural person" enhances the confidence of himself and everyone. Shaman believe that he is the protagonist of "professional priesthood" who has to communicate with ghosts and gods to deal with spiritual affairs. Second, it is a function of hiding the true identity and self-protection. The use of masks in various rituals such as healing, exorcism, and chasing the soul has this function. Because, for all kinds of demons and ghosts, ancient humans always have inexplicable fear. Because all of them are convinced that ghosts and evil spirits can harm others, they need a "shaman" with mysterious mana. In addition to relying on the "shaman" own mana, they can also pray by special ability to communicate with ghosts and gods. Go to the gods or the ancestors to help out; but the "shaman" himself is not completely fearless, not to mention that the "shaman" is not likely to maintain the super-powerful state of "being fascinating" all the time, he is in most time is also as ordinary and weak as ordinary people, not to mention that he also has family members who need protection. Therefore, of course, masks are used to conceal their true face and identity in order to protect themselves. In addition, people sometimes believe that the "Shaman Mask" is the embodiment and carrier of the sacred ancestors, clan ancestors and other natural gods. It is a magical supernatural force that can strengthen the protection of the "Shaman" and give him more strong divine power.

In addition to masks, many non-masked "Shaman", on the frontal brim of the "Shaman Cap", will also be specially sewed with tassels.  The tassels are made of various materials, including bone tassels, skin tassels, and feather tassels, beaded tassels, flower knot tassels, eyebrows tassels, color tassels and velvet tassels, etc., but in the same function as the mask, the longest tassels can hang down to the chest, and the short one can cover the tip of the nose. The general length is mostly around the chin.


                               
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"Shaman Mask" also has a function that has never been proposed by any researcher, that is, "masking"; some secrets learned from the author's long-term research experience of "Child media culture"; Whether it is a routine ritual carried out in the temple, or during the ceremonial ceremonies in the temple fair, not every time, 100% of the "God" can be invited onsite. That is to say, not every time, the Shaman can reach altered states of consciousness (ASC).

Therefore, sometimes Shaman have to do it, have to pretend the god is onsite. It is called "fake jumping" in Taiwan. It relies on courage and realistic acting; even need endure the pain of piercing by steel needle. Sometimes the “Child media” need endure the pain “five weapons” hitting on the back and forehead. The blood need be seen to convince the audience. Otherwise, the prestige will be lost and the believers will leave. This is the truth; the same reason can be proved. "Shaman" may not be 100% successful in every ritual, "if you don’t reach ASC, if you can't do it, your face and eyes are very likely to leak the truth", therefore, the mask or the front of the brim can play a proper "masking" role, it is not easy to be perceived by the believers, and the acting can be complemented by years of accumulated "jumping(ASC)" experience.

"Shaman Drum" is an indispensable instrument for all Shaman. It is also an artifact. Even the Sacred Drums can be used as a vehicle for shaman soul to travel the three worlds of the heavens and the earth, and the drumstick is a whip. Moreover, in the "seance" ceremony, the gods or the ancestors could sit on the drums. The shaman can pray for the gods or ancestors by tapping the drums during the ceremony, and Shaman can drive the gods and drive the demons.


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2020-3-11 21:22:05 | 顯示全部樓層
The original origin of the "Shaman Drum" is to imitate the thunder in nature, because human beings are afraid of lightning and thunder, and believe that the thunder is anger of God, and the primitive people live in the wild for a long time, the nomads live among the simple tents, the glare and loud noise of thunder and lightning are very shocking. In addition, in the wilderness, it is extremely fearful to be killed or seriously injured by the thunder, so people will believe all demon and ghosts are also afraid of thunder, and as a result, the closest thing to thunder is the drum sound. The initial use may be from a hollow trunk that is naturally hollowed out by termites. Beating with a stick will produce a good resonance. This kind of sounding device has been widely used in some primitive tribes. When humans know how to use the axe, they sometimes deliberately hollow out the trunk and make hollow or wooden hollow drums. The Taiwan aborigines also have such wooden drums used in sacrifices or dances. After that, it may be for the fishing and hunting nomadic life styles that often migrate; the natural wooden drums are too cumbersome, the handling is laborious, and the progress of various production techniques has gradually developed a lighter version, Tambourine which has similar sounding performance.

In some myths and legends, it was mentioned that the "Shaman Drum" was originally skinned on both sides. Later, in the fight against the "Lamaism" Master, the drum was cut two halves by the big cymbals throwed by lama. It became the later Shaman one side drum. Of course this is just legend, and most likely this is a misunderstanding. Since history of Shaman belief was more than ten thousand years, and the history of Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) is just about more than a thousand years. The history of the single-faced "Shaman God Drum" must have existed longer than Lamaism.

The most popular form of Shaman drum is round drums. There are also goose ovals, ovals and even branches tied with ropes into a square or rectangular frame. In the northeastern part of China, the Ewenki and Hezhe people use the elliptical drums, but most of the rest use circular drums, there is also painted curve on drumhead. In the Hezhe Shaman drum, there are also rich mysterious patterns and symbols, which enhance the magical power of the drum. The shape of the drum is very diverse, the production is complicated, the drum surface, the drum frame, and the inner surface of the drum, the grip of the drum are vividly carved and patterned, and some are additionally equipped with various metal bells of various sizes, The back part of the some drums are directly wrapped with a tight leather cord into a cross, a beige or eight-line. For direct grip, some inside is made with this strip or iron cross beam, called "road”. The center of the iron beam is deliberately made into a hollow ring, which symbolizes "the center of the world."

Since the "God Drum" is a sacred instrument necessary for the "Shaman", there must be many religious etiquette and taboos when making the Drum. God chooses the drum skin. The shaman will sacrifice and divination in the temple, to ask for the direction of the skin. Then the shaman or the shaman leads several helpers, starting in the direction of divination. Any first large beast or python that is met is considered to be the god's choice and gift. People will try to capture the skin as the drumhead. Later, the shaman drums were gradually changed to cowhide or burdock, horse skin, camel skin, and many grazing people used suede and deerskin. The Jurchen people living in the East China Sea, as well as the fishing people living in Heilongjiang, Henggun River and even the Okhotsk Sea, specialize in fish skin drums for the sea sacrifices and rivers. More whales, mink skins, and walruses and seals are used.


                               
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The drumsticks of "Shaman Drum" are mostly made of natural branches or tough wooden sticks, and because of the different natural materials in the shaman's living area, some drumsticks are made of the beast's leg bones, beast horns, and ivory teeth. It is not common, but you could see some of them are made of woven intertwined whale skin, animal skin, reins, ancient vines, and tiger leopard ribs.

The real function of "Shaman Drum" is actually not so secretive; it relies on the low-frequency vibration sound waves of drum sounds. Firstly, it works through ear hearing. Second, the actual vibration of the drumhead, via tapping of the drumhead, pass through palms and arms are transmitted to the body, not only to vibrate the body, but most importantly, to vibrate to nerve conduction, to the nerve pulse, to achieve the "resonance effect", and then affect the brain "ideas", accelerate the effect of self-hypnosis, and can smoothly  "be entranced” or “Exalted”. There was an actual experience of the author. One time during the onsite investigation of a haunted house, the active way to contact with the ghost is guided by a doctoral-level "master" with super-ideal guidance. After reduced the frequency and got to a resonance state, many people at the same time visually witness the ghosts appearing. (Note: Of course, it is not an illusion or hypnosis. It is in the way that the mind is completely awake, and knows the principle, and continues to downgrade by the willpower of the will. Then, the results seen on the spot are completely correct.) Using sound to achieve "self-hypnosis", changing the wave frequency of the mind field, then communicating with ghosts or gods, or entering the "spiritual world" for any activity, can indeed be done; therefore, "Shaman Drum" are used by all nationalities with Shaman belief, with such a wide range of ways across the world, and can still function for more than 10,000 years. People can't easily deny it or just be a superstitious act.

Compare Shaman culture in north and (child) media child culture in south

Although in religious studies and "cultural anthropology", the general "Asian shamanism" include all the "witch" beliefs of most parts of Asia from south to north and from west to east all over the Asia. For the west side, it even reaches to north Europe, and North America for the east side. However, that kind of description is too general, and not in line with facts.

Because the so-called "Asian Shamanism" should be called "Northern Asian Shaman Belief" is more appropriate, this belief is only the original belief, there is no basic elements of religion (doctrine, classic, major gods), and, in southern Asia "Witch" has its own characteristics, and it is almost always attached to various religions. There are "doctrines, classics, and major gods." There are also many ritual features that are almost completely different from " Northern Asian Shaman Belief."

In the 1990s, I helped an American anthropology doctor to conduct a research of children medium in Taiwan. At the time, the author first proposed the term "child medium culture", which was adopted for reference. For nearly 30 years, the author still advocates that child medium culture is quite unique, which is not belong to "Northern Shaman Faith". The following is a comparison of the two: (Shaman and child medium culture)

1. "Shaman" is not affiliated with any religion. It is the original "belief of the ancestors". Children medium must belong to religion. In southern China, Guangdong, south Fujian, and Taiwan, children media must belong to the "Taoism" system. In South Asia, it belongs to the "Hinduism" system.

2. "Shaman" has no major god worship, pure "ancestor worship", children medium have a fixed "main god" worship (at least one of them is mostly, sometimes there are many gods).

3. The "holy possession" of "Shaman" is mainly "ancestor spirit" (not necessarily limited to one ancestor), and "children" must be "God" to "enter the gods" and never have "ancestors" "Ling" comes "attached" (commonly known as "downhill" or "starting").

4. The Shaman “occupied by holy spirit” is to answer the doubts or treatment of the believers, and they all open their mouths to speak or answer questions. In addition to the same characteristics, child medium doesn’t talk during the event of the grand celebration of the temple altar, or in the grand celebration of the ancestral temple. They (Child medium) just simply displayed in various movements, and most of them do not speak.

5. The "Shaman" only use speaking language to answers to questions, and never use “writing language” (Note: This feature can show that the "Shaman Faith" is formed in the obscurity era before the words are available, and then has been continually dictated by the oral teaching). Child medium is divided into “Wu Medium(武乩)” and “Wen medium(文乩)” The latter does not speak at all, but simply uses words or pictures to answer questions, or the teaching instructions of the gods.

6. "Shaman" use mantra, there is no written charm. Child media use both mantra and written charm. In a lot of scenarios, Children will be hand-painted the written charm to help the believers after "occupied by the god". Sometimes they burn the written charm and put the ash to drinking water, and sometimes they ask the believers bring the written charm to home or wear these charms.

7. "Shaman" can be "occupied by god" or "exalted". “occupied by god” refers to the ancestral spirit possessed. "exalted" refers to the soul of this "shaman" to search for certain situations and even communicate with other ghosts. Shaman need negotiate, battle, or enter the underworld to bring back the lost "soul." However, Child medium simply have the function "occupied by god", and They do not "go out" to deal with spiritual things. If there is a need, they also pray for God to deal with them. This is a big difference.

8. Shaman almost always tap his Shaman Drum during the process of “occupied by other spirit” or to get “exalted”. Children medium don't use drums or other sounders to get “occupied by other spirit". Instead, child medium use perfume of incense to get “occupied”.

9. "Shaman" has no visible weapons. Children medium not only have various god-specific weapons or implements, but also common "five weapons" (seven-star sword, moon axe, meteor hammer, mace, shark sword). Therefore, Shaman will not hurt his own body, and in some special celebrations, children medium will use their weapon to cut their own flesh, and even puncture their cheeks with various sharps. Some believers in Hinduism (not necessarily being a medium) will puncture their chest or back with a number of iron hooks to haul vehicles or support a heavy object.


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2020-3-11 21:23:30 | 顯示全部樓層
10. "Shaman" has a fixed ascension ceremony called "Ominan(奧米蘭)", and the shaman can add one fork to his deer antler after the ceremony. This is a clear division of the status level, a top "Shaman" could have four “Ominan” in his life. However, there is no ritual in the child medium culture, nor can they be seen from the appearance of clothing, or there is no clear distinction. For the all his life, he is called child medium.

11. For Shaman, after got “occupied by other spirit”, he may need an assistant, but most of the time he just answers question or provide instruction directly without translator. Child medium need translator, normally we call the translator “table assistant(桌头) “, and most of the table assistants are retired child medium. Table assistant is a good choice when child medium got old, they could stay In this area and continue help new child medium.

12.  For shaman, after they got “occupied”, the spirits will state his identity and why he is here. For children medium, they will use body language to illustrate their identity. All kinds of different gods have fixed movement characteristics (such as "Ji Gong(济公)" is a swaying fan or a hoist to drink, "Three Princes(三太子)" is a high-handed one, one hand on the waist, representing the hand "fire spear" and "Chien Kun Ring(乾坤圈)" or other weapons, this action feature is called "featured pose", very easy to identify, no need to explain with additional languages.

13. The reason why "shaman" is "shaman" is usually born with a specific physique, and often after a serious illness or strange disease, he/she suddenly becomes a "shaman", although during the illness, he/she claimed to have the ancestors taught various spells or techniques, but there was no fixed training period and there was often a family tradition. Children medium has a so-called "catch", which is chosen by a certain god to be tortured in various ways, and it takes 45 days of "sitting" to become an official child medium. However, some time the child medium may voluntarily to become a child medium. There is not necessary a family tie to become a child medium. Most of the child medium have no family inheritance.

14. Although the "Shaman" could be both men or women, most of them are women. Some ethnic "shaman" must be male, and children medium are mostly male, and the proportion of women is very small. There have been some changes. The Taiwan region has increased more female children medium with the opening of social concepts.

15. "Shaman" has very few food taboos. Child medium have some clear food taboos; such as frogs, squids, snakes, turtles, dog meat, etc. Some are not allowed to eat beef, some can eat beef.

16. The costumes of "Shaman" are very complicated and heavy. There are many metal accessories and waist bells, and there must be tall hats. The costumes of child medium are very simple, usually only for the upper body, An apron with embroidery pattern. The costume difference may also be related to the climate. but the biggest difference is that there are many metal round mirror ornaments on the "Shaman" costumes, which are considered to have the function of protecting themselves. There is no "guard" ornament on the costumes of child medium.

17. "Shaman" will wear masks during the ceremony, or at least most of the "Shaman" will have some beads or tassels hanging from the front of the hat to cover up their faces, in order to avoid the demons and ghosts have been retaliated by recognizing their true identity. The children medium has never worn any masks, nor have they concealed their faces, nor have they heard of fears of revenge by demons. (Note: "Shaman" originated from the ancient "Apocalypticism" era. The “occupied by spirit “is dominated by "ancestor spirit". Children medium is active in the era of religion and god belief. All kinds of "gods" represent justice side. The so-called demons or evil spirits represent evil sides. They have always confessed that " evil can never prevail over good".

Therefore, children medium has always been the spokesperson of the gods, so they never worry about worry about revenge by ghosts and evil spirits in their daily life. This is very different from "Shaman", and it is also the basic cognition that I have gained after long-term contact with the study of "children's culture".

18, In the official Shaman ceremony, the believers will slaughter cattle and kill large sheep and other large animals as sacrifices for blood sacrifices. At the official ceremony of Children medium, the worship of the believers is limited to small chicken or very limited pork blocks; "Shaman" uses raw meat, and Children medium use cooked food (Note: This may be due to the difference between the former is the nomadic and the latter is farming people).

19.  In the official ceremony, the "Shaman" will enclose the mana range of "enchantment" with red ropes, which is intended to prohibit the demon and ghosts from entering, and especially to erect the towering trunks with branches and leaves for the ancestral spirits to "suffocate". There is absolutely no such practice for child medium.

20. "Shaman" is divided into "White Shaman" and "Black Shaman". The difference is that the former helps others, while the latter uses sorcerer to benefit himself. Although most the stories about black shaman were just legends, after all, the existence of black shaman is true. For children medium, there is no distinction between good and evil. Regardless of the actual nature of each individual, they are acting as the agent of the god behind them, and they cannot use any sorcerer for their self-interest. Even if they do not act properly in the daily life, they will be punished by the God.

21, In the past 100 years, because of the changes of the times, the lifestyle has changed drastically, and people have more open mind. The "Northern Shaman Faith" has a clear trend of decline; especially the original Soviet Siberia and mainland China, because of the implementation Communism, strict advocacy of "atheism", many religious and folk beliefs were suppressed, so that the "Northern Shaman Faith" and the "Southern Children Medium Culture" were almost banned at the same time. With the late opening policy of adopted by the ethnic autonomous region, in the northeastern part of the mainland and inner Mongolia, the "Shaman activities" have improved slightly, but they are still very few in terms of the proportion of the population. However, because of the strong religious color and the obvious doctrine about the ghosts and gods, the "Southern Children Medium Culture" has not yet recovered in mainland China. On the contrary, in Taiwan, because of the open attitude towards various religious beliefs, the "Southern Child Medium Culture" has flourished here, and the temples of the altars are everywhere. Children medium is an important item in Taoist and folk religious beliefs. Children medium accounted for the highest proportion of the population. Secondly, in the Chinese immigrant society in Southeast Asia, the "southern child medium culture" was still preserved (note: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Phuket, Thailand) The worship of "nine Emperors” is a typical representative of celebration during child medium got “occupied by god”.

22. Most of the Shaman has almost no fixed temples, which is related to the long-term migration habits of the early nomadic people; so far, the "Shaman" ceremonies or celebrations in Inner Mongolia or Northeast China are mostly temporary yurts or general tents. The children medium in Taiwan or Southeast Asian Chinese have fixed altar temples. Some children medium are the abbots of the altar. Therefore, there are temples without child medium, but you cannot find child medium without temples. This is also a big difference between the two. (Note: In the case of Taiwan, some large Taoist temples do not have child media, any worship or service for the believers does not rely on child medium, while some temples may not only have one "children" Sometimes, sometimes even up to dozens).

23.  Since most Shaman does have fixed temple, so the believers cannot gather often. Therefore, Shaman cannot get financial support. They can only get some money while serving the believers. While in some areas, the "Shaman" is not in a good position during their daily life, and even life is extremely difficult. The children medium in Taiwan are attached to the fixed temples of the gods. Although they are also voluntary, most of them can get a fixed salary. Some popular children medium can even get fixed cut of the revenue of the temple. For the private altar, the children medium take all the money contribute by believers.

24.  Shaman uses speaking language to convey various spiritual messages after got the status of “occupied by God”.  Children medium is divided into “Wen medium(文乩童)” and “Wu Medium(武乩童)”. Furthermore, the Wen medium(文乩童)”  could classified to trouble solver(問事壇), medical problem solver(方壇), and art altar(書畫壇), which conceal the mystery of the calligraphy and paintings, and the believers themselves understand, If you don't understand, there is a special sketcher service in the altar.

25.  "Shaman" rituals are mostly temporary, or only a few are fixed for a long period of time (such as the "WoTang Shaman(巫堂薩滿)" in South Korea), while most of the children medium are working in fixed location and long-term work, some temples and temples even open the altar every day to the public.

26.  "Shaman" in some areas will rely on fierce and frantic dance movements or hallucinogenic herbs to help enter the state of "exalted" or “occupied by God” (for example, some American Indians will use the mushroom, coca leaf, India relies on marijuana, etc.) However, children media never use the fierce and frantic dance movements or hallucinogenic herbs to help enter the state of "occupied".

27. The "Northern Shaman Faith" believes that a person's illness or accidental injury is caused by an evil ghost, or because he inadvertently succumbs to ghosts or evil spirits. Therefore, the resolution is to negotiate with the God/ghost or fight back. Shaman need call the ancestral ghost to help. In order to exorcise evil, sometimes it is recommended to take some herbs to treat the disease. In addition to the same insights, child medium treats patients with holy water, and sometime child medium will beat and massage patients for so-called "Physiotherapy" means repairing damaged "spirits", and a few will even be treated with "virtual acupuncture" (acupuncture is a product of late human civilization, so in the "Northern Shaman Faith" there is no such way of treatment).

28.  "Northern Shaman Faith" has only "totem worship", and there is no specific humanoid god worship. (Note: "Northern shaman belief" has a specific humanoid god worship" is very late development. In the children medium culture, there must be an indispensable fantasy worship of the specific humanoid form god, and various statues of gods. This is related to the lifestyle, because "the northern shaman belief Nomadic people who started from fishing and hunting to collect tribes or have no fixed place, have no fixed temples, and are not allowed to carry bulky "spiritual statues" to walk around. Child medium culture begins in the late agricultural lifestyle. It is also a fixed temple of the altar. Therefore, the difference between the two is based on the belief in one's own piety or in order to make the believer have a specific "god" to worship and gather faith.

29.  In addition to the official "Shaman" and "Children Medium", there is another kind of independent medium that can be called "Witch" (also known as "Psychic") because Naturally physique, or deliberate practice after born, so they can communicate with ghosts and gods. Some have "Yin Yang eye(阴阳眼)" and even see ghosts and gods; some communicate with certain ghost; some communicate with non-fixed ghosts to get some "Spiritual Information" can answer questions or cure diseases for people. Such psychics can be divided into two categories; the first type has almost no obvious "exalted" or “occupied” status. They just simply play the translator role. They don’t allow ghosts and gods to borrow their flesh body. These "psychic people" have always existed in the north or south, but they are not affiliated to two kinds of belief cultures. system. Another kind of psychic is dedicated to the work of "calling the ghost", that is, the certain ghost can brought the media’s body to talk with relatives and friends in the human world, some belong to the temple belief system, but many also work independently.

(Note 1: The biggest difference between the psychic media with "Yin and Yang Eye" and the two traditional system( "Northern Asian Shaman" and "Southern Children Medium") is that they do not need got “occupied by god” or “exalted” to serve believers, since they could see ghost/god all the time during their normal conditions.

(Note 2: The psychic media of "calling soul" has existed all over the world since ancient times. It is different from "Asian Northern Shaman". This kind of "psychic media" comes in possession when he got “occupied by God”. It is not the "ancestral spirit" related to itself, but the relatives and friends of the help-seekers. The most striking difference between "Northern Asian Shaman" and "Southern Child Medium" is that "Southern Children Medium" are only limited to help-seekers, and no other god will occupy the child medium’s body. Some famous child medium may have more than one “occupied by ghost/god” in one day, sometimes it is a complete process of "attachment – answer questions" that has to go through many times. This is different from the case where the "Asian Northern Shaman" is usually occupied by a single ancestor to the end of the” answer questions”. For details, please refer to the author's other book, "Taiwan Chief Psychology and the soul summon", published in 1996).

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