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General soul research-The ancient Chinese’s concept and belief about the soul 廣義靈魂學-中國古人的靈魂觀念和信仰

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發表於 2019-1-22 17:11:32 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
本帖最後由 赫生童子 於 2019-1-22 17:49 編輯

General soul research-The ancient Chinese’s concept and belief about the soul 廣義靈魂學-中國古人的靈魂觀念和信仰

Author :Chang Kai-Chi 張開基

translation:某君

(You are welcomed to share or reprint but please indicate the source and author)

The Chinese have a cultural advantage to be proud of; that is, Chinese history has not been broken, and Chinese characters (in traditional Chinese characters) have continued since Oracle, although there have been improvements and reductions in the meantime but have not been broken(ruined) due to invasion of other nations or any political factors.

So today, as long as people who know how to read, even if they see the "Oracle" in the Palace Museum more than 3,000 years ago, they can recognize a few of them more or less. If they use the "Small Seal Scrip", most Chinese people could recognize it. If it was written in "The clerical script ", which is popular in the Han Dynasty, it can almost recognize 90%... Think about it, the Han Dynasty is already 2,000 years ago, and some archaeological discoveries of Han dynasty, words written on bamboo slips, we can still recognize, what a magical thing?

Therefore, in the ancient Chinese characters, at least in Oracle, we can already find many versions of ghosts, and all of them were similar in shape.

Of course, in the later versions of large seal style, Bronze inscriptions script,small seal style, official script, cursive script, regular script, etc. however, all of them are really similar to the oracle version.
Then, the word "ghost" is classified according to the style of the word, is it a pictogram, a referrer, a will, or something else?

In fact, it can be very certain that it is a "pictogram" because, first, the word "oracle" and "small seal script" of this word can be seen as an "animal" shape, with head and body, just similar to other animal words.

Second, the word ghost in Oracle is very similar to the ghost described in the legend since ancient times.

Third, the shape of the word ghost in Oracle is consistent with the real shape of ghost.


                               
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Of course, the third one is more valuable to explore. Of course, because more than half of the people believe that there are "ghosts" in the world, but most people do not think that "ghosts" are objectively or it can be found at any time to verify, so of course it is not acceptable to believe that the features emphasized in the creation of words are in full compliance with the real state of the ghost.

This is understandable, because only those who have actually seen the ghost will agree with this statement, the proportion of so-called "seeing ghosts" is absolutely not as rampant and so nonsense as the legendary "ghost story", but since ancient times, there have been many examples of living people "see ghosts". They have not only become horror stories after painting and painting, but have even been written by literati as novels, compiled into dramas, made into movies, and even become Religious models, or even enter the room to become the object of accepting good men and women worship (such as the so-called good brothers everywhere in the small temple, and these idols in Mid-Summer Ghost Festival).

"Ghost" is really not cute, and most of the time it is annoying and hateful, but it is not as terrible and terrifying as the legend, especially regarding the ability of ghosts, most of them are exaggerated.

Now, let's take a look at the ancient character of the word ghost. It has a big head, a small body, and a hand, but although it has feet, the feet are distorted, and in some Oracle version, the feet become like a kneeling posture.


                               
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In fact, its head is too large, and the proportion of the body is more than our normal person, the face becomes a fork, not a clear five senses, symbolizing that there are indeed five senses, but, a bit fuzzy.
The definition of "ghost" in the dictionary is: "the essence of body after death."

Of course, for us living people; "ghosts" are not carnal. Although they are sometimes seen as if they were in their pre-life, but only in shape and without flesh, “aura” may be an approximate description.
In fact, the kind of ghost that will be "seen", the upper body of the character, especially the face, is more obvious; this is also a constraint; because the way we humans recognize acquaintances and strangers is of course mainly based on the face. Supplemented by the body shape.

For example, if a relative or a very familiar person is standing alone in the distance, we may recognize it immediately from the back, but if he is standing in a large group of people, it is impossible to recognize only by back or body shape, because all back are similar More, it is not easy to recognize, at this time, the appearance is important features to be different.

Moreover, since ancient times, China has had the saying of "new ghosts are bigger, old ghosts are smaller". The author can be sure that this is an empirical statement, at least it is consistent with the fact. Because the ancient Chinese thought: Ghost's "aura" will slowly dissipate over time, regardless of the length of time, is days, tens of days, years, or decades... and the first to dissipate is the prominent parts, such as hands and feet, ears. The nose...especially the foot farthest from the center of the body. Most ghost stories tell you that "the ghost has no feet", which is also true. (Note: However, in the author's research, it is found that, more precisely, this will gradually dissipate, and the complete disappearance is actually the "scorpion", which is detailed in the chapter "Redefined of the soul”).

So, you can look at the ancient "ghost" character, which is characterized by the face of the head, but the body is not very sure, and the foot, that is not a kneeling position, but a fuzzy smoke-like shape.


                               
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Therefore, there are many Japanese portraits of "ghosts" that even and comics. The heads, hands, and faces are clear, and the waist is painted like smoke. This is also true.

Look at the shape ghosts in comic, nowadays it can already be regarded as an international common language. Any ethnic group in any region, you should know that this image is a symbol of ghosts, and probably can't mistake other things. Then look at its characteristics: the big head, the hands and feet are omitted, and the lower body is a smog-like shape. It is similar to the "ghost" in ancient Japanese paintings or the "ghost" in Chinese ancient writings. This can’t be just a mere coincidence.


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:14:53 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 赫生童子 於 2019-1-22 17:15 編輯

Chinese ghost and ancestral concept

There is a considerable time gap between the concept and belief of "ghost" (the worship of ancestors) and the worship and belief of "God".

For the ancient ancestors of China. "Ghosts" originally meant only the people who died, the state of spirit and soul that remained after leaving the body, especially the "ancestral spirit".

The original form of ghost is a pictograph, and not only can it be seen in ancient oracles in ancient times, but it can be seen in the same way as the current standard script.

The most primitive meaning of ghost is actually "return" (also the source of the word), which means "going back". Going back there? Going back to the hometown. Until now, for some people’s death, we sometimes use "back to the home" to express it. It is a relatively mild synonym, and sometimes it is inevitable that there are some ridiculous ingredients, but it is not bad.  There is no curse or horrible ingredients.

But where is this "hometown"?

In fact, the Chinese themselves are not very sure. That do not mean heaven, earth, or underworld at first. That are simply an imaginary space, quite vague or only in the imagination of thoughts.

In addition, because the ancient ancestors of China have always had the concepts of "ghost" and "soul spirit" (ancestral spirit), there is no concept of reincarnation. Therefore, no soul after death will be reborn as human or animal. There is no such concept that our souls came from underworld or the spiritual world.

Therefore, when a person dies, he becomes a "ghost" (the soul), and he simply returns to his hometown to reunite with the ancestors who died earlier. Moreover, the original intention of the "ancestral spiritual sacrifice" is to simply memorize the hard work ancestors done and worship of the ancestors. However, the emergence of Shaman was also a dialogue with the ancestors at the beginning. The sadness of the mourning from the funeral was originally to comfort the living, and later became the care and exhortation of the ancestors; The ancestors had the role of blessing, warning and punishing (with disaster) the future generations.

In fact, this part should be based on the fabrication of "Witch". The purpose is to benefit from the sacrifice. At the beginning the witch is to get some material and money. When "Witch" becomes a tribal priest, or a national teacher, even the chieftain or the monarch relied on him to pre-empt the good and the bad, worshiping the ancestors for blessing and disaster relief, and blessing for the harvest to win, the “power” of the ancestral souls is getting bigger and bigger. The king went down to the civilians to believe in the ancestors so devoutly. In addition to the fatter of the priests, it is more important to indirectly form a concept, that is, the concept of "The sacrifice of wine and food for ancestor souls cannot be interrupted." And the most important is "cannot be interrupted".

Therefore, they dare not stop sacrifice their ancestors, and even they are eager to have sacrifices from their children and grandchildren after death (this is what the later conception of inheritance, inheritance of incense, fear of falling down, etc.) is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. It is also because the living person is obsessed with this concept, and after becoming a "ghost" after death, he is still obsessed. Therefore, the concept of "born as a labor, death as a rest" to enjoy the blessing has gradually become necessary to have the incense from the future generations. It can be seen there is still mutual influence between the living person and the ghost. The most important thing is that some persistent concepts during living will continue even after death.

And when people's ideas have expanded from the fear of "ancestral spirits" to "all things have a spirit” view, humans have become extraordinarily small overnight, because nature is changeable, so violent, and the world is indifferent, living in the world. In the age of ignorance, the knowledge of nature is so lacking. The power of all things and spirits has become extraordinarily scary. Who dares not to fear the ancestors or sprit of all the nature power? Rain, Wind, mountain, and river are all able to bring disaster to human and cause the loss of property, and even human life.

Gradually, ghosts who originally only care about their own children, became bullying other unrelated people. The reason is that the history of China is so long, but it is so many disasters. The deaths caused by various natural disasters have died in the wars of the past. The warriors and innocent civilians... These millions of "ghosts", including some without future generations. When they can't get "sacrifice," they will of course have to seek foreign aid, so they will go to work with irrelevant living person, in order to get sacrifice of food or even money, these ghost need pretend to be a variety of mountain gods to intimidate some timid and superstitious people.

The concept of " all things have a spirit " may be earlier than the notion of "There is a soul after death” and “ancestral soul”.

Because humans first realized that they lived in the nature of this world, they were so small and incompetent, especially in completely unfamiliar nature, from wind and rain, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, forest fires and even the attacks of viper and beasts, which are all making human beings tremble, are always fearful, and from the lack of weapons and housing protection, human beings have to "extremely fear" all things in nature.

In the original thought, everything in the nature and the power of nature are almost all given to the godhead by the "personification". The mountains and the earth, the wind and the thunder and lightning, etc. are regarded as a giant or a god that cannot be confronted and moody. Therefore, human beings do not Just be awe-inspiring, but more cautiously worship and serve, and compared to the state of power infinite power, human emotions and sorrows are not worth mentioning, and life and death often happen in the blink of an eye. Nature doesn’t care about Human’s sorrow. Therefore, "How can a living person live a safer life?" It is definitely more important than "What will happen after death?" Therefore, at least for a long time, humans did not notice the "post-death" affairs.

Some ancient "tombs" sometimes find some funerary objects, so they are often interpreted as "there is a soul after death". In fact, this is not true.

We can be sure that the funeral customs of living people and livestock are related to the concept of "post-mortem world". However, there are funerary objects in tombs, but they cannot be arbitrarily proved to be related to "post-death world" or "spirit concept" because of the following

In some ancient human tombs, there were found burial objects such as bows and arrows (male) and spindles (female), but this could not be immediately and arbitrarily said to be convenient for them to continue to use in another world after death.

Suppose the bow and the spindle are real products, not imitations. The original intention of the funeral may just want to avoid see these things (which may cause to think about the dead person).  This is only possible under the conditions of material abundance, otherwise if the tools are not easy to make and Practical tools should be passed on to future generations or taken by other tribes and not used to be buried.

First of all, before the concept of "ghost" or "dead soul" or "post-mortem life", the most primitive one should be the concept of cognitive "death". This is not only for humans, many animals have, especially for the same kind. Death can be fearful and sad to the death of a close relative, which is already a common situation in the animal kingdom.

However, animals are afraid of "death". It is a biological instinct. It is sad for the close relatives "death." It is a primary emotional reaction. However, it is certain that animals will not have "ghosts", "death souls", and "after death." In the concept of "life", even animals have not only "tombs" and rituals for dead relatives or companions, but some animals may even eat similar corpses as food.

There is no research result that can affirm when humans began to have "tombs", although some archaeologists believe that human beings have a "tomb" behavior that represents the concept of "the soul is not destroyed";

In this regard, I cannot agree, because human beings are better at using tools than other animals, whether they are digging holes or building stones; therefore, the original meaning of "tombs" cannot be based on the concept that "the soul is immortal". It is very likely that the body of a loved one cannot be seen as food by other animals, or that the human being itself may have the hobby of "eat body". (Note 1; that is a natural behavior that is a last resort. In this era, we don't need to feel sick or cruel. The sand fish in the sea will also eat the injured companion, only for food). (Note 2; Until today, some primitive peoples in Southeast Asia have the custom of eating human body, and they are not for food, but to take souls and spirits in the body).

However, at present, in archaeology, it is found that some areas in the middle and late Neolithic period, for some "burial" (reinforcement, sitting and burial), on the cover will deliberately punch holes, leaving a finger-sized hole According to the study. It is very likely that the relatives did this in order to facilitate the soul get out of the coffin. This may prove that there should have been such concepts as "ghosts", "death souls" and "life after death".


                               
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In addition, some ethnic minorities in the deep mountain jungles bordering China in Southeast Asia, they live in the "hanging foot building" (thick bamboo elevated house), raising livestock downstairs, living upstairs to avoid the poisonous snakes and beasts, but after the death of their loved ones, they put the body in a wooden barrel or bamboo raft, buried it in the underground below the house, and inserted a bamboo that broke through the joint into the body of the barrel, and the upper end went straight to the floor of the living person. Every time they dine, they will also pour some food and vegetables from the hollow bamboo, and they respectfully pray for the deceased to enjoy with the living relatives and friends...


                               
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Therefore, it is not known whether the hole in the "burial" cover is also for the same reason. However, the latter of course believe that "the soul does not die", to have such a strange custom.

The reason why human beings are different from other species is even different from other close relatives of primates; there are concepts such as "ghosts", "death souls" and "life after death". Some studies may think that the reason is very simple; that is, fear of death, fear is unknown, fear of dying after death, everything is turned into nothing... not only fear of fear after death, but also the same disappointment for the death of loved ones.  Based on psychological needs, so naturally "occurrence" (or "invention" the idea of "the soul does not die", and then build up a "post-death world" that is illusory but very comforting. Therefore, after death, people are not ruined with vegetation, but although there is no flesh, there is a kind of spiritual energy (death soul) that is exactly the same as the deceased's life, and can still exist in another world...


                               
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Then this concept gradually expanded; it became "the soul is not destroyed", eternal life is not dead, and the other world is more beautiful than the present world; it is further expanded into the concept of "the kingdom of heaven."

In China, there are many times of suffering and suffering; people believe that death is to "return to the old home" to reunite with the ancestors who passed away and enjoy a better and more happy life than the world, so there is also "born as a labor, death as a rest “,  Which describe the death as a break.

In fact, the above cognition is only one of the reasons, but the facts are not so simple, and there are intricate inter-causal relationships that deserve to be slowly studied and explored.

So, what is the difference between ghost in foreign countries and ghost in China?


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:16:43 | 顯示全部樓層
According to the archaeologist's research on the "burial" of the prehistoric period in China, it was found that there was a deliberate piercing on the cover. Archaeologists thought that it was "for the sake of the death of the soul", so it proved that there was a spiritual concept in that era; This should be correct, but it cannot be proved that there is a spiritual concept related to " ancestral spiritual sacrifice" or "ghost worship".

Because in the case of China; since there is the concept of "born as a labor, death as a rest", then death is a "ghost" (return), returning to the hometown and the ancestors of earlier deceased to reunite, rest forever and no longer live for life. Working hard, then officially farewell with the society, no longer have any entanglement or involvement, and the descendants are only memorizing and remembering, and will not beg to the ancestors. Therefore, "ancestor worship" or "ghost worship" will not be formed at the same time as the concept of the post-mortem world...

However, the concept of "death as a ghost", "returning to the home", "born as a labor, death as a rest", etc., and the communication of "witch", human world and spiritual world, are inextricably linked to the development of language and the increase of imagination. These abilities also contributed to the transformation and degeneration of the "ghost" afterwards...

Note 1. Regarding the "ancestor worship" of the Chinese, there is a very interesting and noteworthy point in the Chinese word: the word “ancestor(祖)" is both a syllabary and a pictogram. In fact, it is originally the word "and(且)". Look at this word, the detachment is the appearance of the Chinese ancestor or oracle plaque. If you look at the appearance of this word in ancient scripts, it will be more clear that it is indeed a pictogram of a tablet, usually made of wood. And more importantly, some ancient texts look like "condoms"? correct! That's right! It is very much like a condom, because the original meaning of "且" is "penis". The people of the world have more or less the custom of "pendant worship". The ancient Chinese are also the same, so the original meaning of "且" is "penis". It has been extended to "ancestor" and has gradually evolved from a 3D stereoscopic shape to a thin wood chip, but the basic type has not changed much. Later, because the word "且" was falsely borrowed as "and(而且)", and for the sake of distinction and emphasis, the side of the "additional" word for the sacrifice was added to the side, indicating that it was worshipping the ancestors. It becomes the " ancestor(祖)" word of our Chinese character now.

(Note: For an in-depth study and discussion of "Ghosts", please refer to the book "Taiwan Ghost Study" by the author of this book, published in July 2010)


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:22:00 | 顯示全部樓層
The Soul concept" in Human Ancient Civilization 04

Indian soul concept and belief

The ancient Indian civilization originated from the "Indian Five Rivers", which was the earliest civilization in South Asia. Because these sites are mainly concentrated in the Indus Valley, they are called "Indus River Civilization". And because its ruins were first discovered in the "harappa", it is often called "Halapa culture." The age of the Indus civilization was about 2500 BC to 1750 BC, but this civilization was not discovered until 1921-1924. Like the Sumerian civilization in the two river basins, it was buried in the ground for a long time. No people know about it.

In 1922, people accidentally discovered Mohenzo. The remains of mohenjo-daro, the unearthed artifacts here are similar to the Haraba, and archaeologists pay attention to the vast area between the two sites - centered on Punjab, 1600 km from east to west, and 1,400 km north and south. A large number of sites belonging to the same civilization.

At that time, the "Dravidian peoples" and "Australians" who lived in the area for a long time had already had quite large cities, streets, and public activities. There were already two-storey masonry buildings. Later they were conquered by the nomadic "Aryan" people with lower civilization.

In India, the earliest concept of soul immortality and post-mortem world is of course the “reincarnation” view of the aborigines. Later, during the reign of the Aryans, it was presented in the concept of “five sacrifice and two paths”.  Two Paths" refers to "Heaven path" and "Ancestral path". At that time, the post-mortem world was rather happy and beautiful, and the difference between the two paths was actually the difference in sacrifice, not people. The good and evil behaviors during the lifetime or the good and evil thoughts, those do not constitute absolute conditions, the real key is whether it has been a complete and correct ritual sacrifice to “fire god Agni”?


                               
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The transformation of "two paths reincarnations" and "three paths reincarnations"

However, in any case, it is of course best if you can enter the "God of Heaven" after death. If you are not good enough, you can go to "Ancestral path" to reunite with your ancestors. At that time,  there was no Hell full terror and suffering is waiting for torture to serve sinners. There is no wicked, and even the hungry ghosts, the animal paths are waiting to make people suffer, and people don’t even have to walk a few times (rebirth as human) in the world.

Later, the second Aryan did not believe in the Vedic invasion invaded the present Ganges River, and readily exchanged with the local indigenous people, and formed the vetaya nation. The late " Atharva-veda " scriptures written by them became representative. And it is pretty different than the previous three vedic scriptures, which including the elements of aboriginal culture such as witchcraft and divination, and the most important thing was the "hell". The concept, however, was only the most original concept at the time, and hell is clearer in the later " Upanișad" era that it was truly determined.


                               
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As a result, the development has become the second of the "Yama heaven", one of which is realized as " Yamaraja" to control the hell. This kind of transformation and gain can be believed to be an inevitable evolution after the Aryans completely changed from nomadic to farming and settled, and the social relationship became more and more complicated, because people's thoughts are no longer as simple as optimism in nomadic life, and the gap between rich and poor intensification has also increased criminal behavior or different ideological concepts. In addition to the law, religious deterrence teachings have also emerged, and the concept of "four rebirths and three paths" has gradually formed, but although in the Heaven and “Ancestor path”, a "Hell path" has been added to the circle. Hell is a bad destination to the post-mortem world. However, this can only be regarded as a "rebirth" concept, rather than a true "reincarnation".


                               
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Until the establishment of the real "Brahmanism", the "caste system" laid the foundation, and after the establishment of the three major programs (Vedas, the “Brahmin first”, and “sacrifice is omnipotence”), in order to consolidate the "caste system", the concept of "reporting reincarnation" was timely produced. And it is entirely out of man-made planning.

The use of such "pre-determined" and "karma" is the most suitable for deceiving the public in the era of the uneducated people, especially those who have hardships for life.

Before the Aryans invaded and ruled India, the aborigines on this land lived on agriculture and were happy with the land. But after being conquered by the Aryans, their status was reduced to slaves and could only be driven by the ruling class. The laborers of the proletariat, and the Aryans, in order to annihilate wealth and consolidate power, colluded with the Brahmin monks and the Kshatriya nobility, and the religion gave the ruling power of the princes and monarchs, and the princes and nobles used force to protect the safety of monks and temples. Authoritative, while ordinary civilians (squatters) either create or do business to create wealth and pay taxes to the royal family, donate money to gods and monks, and the bottom of the slave class, the Sudra, contributes the hardest work for life. Sudra was doing the most production activities such as farming and animal husbandry, or other work that requires intensive labor, as for the, engage in the most dirty, dangerous, despicable work.


                               
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This unequal class division is hereditary, how can all people quietly accept this? Can the opposition to action and dissent thoughts be deterred by the authority of the government and the military force alone?
Of course not! Those who are stupid also know that the power of the people is unstoppable. Therefore, an effective method that can both clamp down speech and fool the people's minds comes into being under the close collusion and careful planning of the church and the state, that is, "karma and reincarnation", the conception very simple, why do people have different classes? Why are there rich and poor people? intrinsic! It is pre-determined! Based on the unsuccessful past karma, good deeds and evils, and devout religions, they will form different "karma" of good and evil, and then they will receive the "pay back" in their lives. Those who were most sincere will reincarnate "God heaven", the second-generation reincarnation "Ancestral path", the reincarnation of the evil will be "Hell path", but the concept of reincarnation "Ancestral Road" originally "Eternal Life" is also subject to the "Sacrifice Almighty Program" The restraint has become not permanent. Once the sacrifice stopped, the souls need come back to human world and reborn as Brahmin, kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra. (Note: The concept of this period, there are still only three paths to go after death, and can not directly rebirth to the world, and the people do not belong to this reincarnation system).

How does "three paths reincarnations" become "six paths reincarnations"?

However, compared with the "karma and reincarnation" system that we know today, the most special thing is that the ancient Indian Brahmanism was not a big reincarnation of all people. Among them, the three classes of Brahman, Kshatriya and Vaishya belong to the "rebirth family". It can be a reincarnation, and the slave Sudra is a "one-time family". After death, they will disappear and no longer reincarnate or at most turn into an animal, and the fate of the untouchables after death is the same.


                               
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This kind of "karma and reincarnation" is not enough. Later, in the name of the human creator "Manu God", a " Manu Code" was fabricated, which not only strictly defined the differences between the four castes, but also standardized them. Detailed rights and obligations, as well as very strict and cumbersome penalty provisions, basically this is a religious law that transcends national laws, not only the ruling class, but also Brahman himself to abide by this code. Before the birth of Sakyamuni, the concept of "karma and reincarnation" and the caste system had been implemented for several hundred years.

However, the concept of "reincarnation" of the Brahman system was still only three, rather than the "five interest and six paths" that defined by Buddhism.

However, the most worthy of thought is that the "reincarnation" was originally the original concept of the ancient civilization of the Indus River. However, due to political factors, the Aryans of the ruling class added the concept of "Karma", and they carefully planned it. The structure of "Karma and reincarnation" is used to support the unequal rule of the "caste system", and the aborigines who formed this concept of "reincarnation" have fallen into the lowest level of the slave class because of the skin color problem, and the result itself is instead listed as The "one-time family" that can no longer be reincarnation (but, also because the ruling class skillfully uses the concept of "reincarnation" of the aboriginal tradition as a blueprint, carefully planning this "reincarnation mechanism" is a very effective way of foolish people, and it is a political and religious system,  operating simultaneously).


                               
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However, since the beginning of BC, the slave class and the inhabitants of India have not accepted their lives, but at least they have not caused any large-scale "anti-riot" actions and threatened the political power. However, some slaves and untouchables just do not agree with the saying about “one life”. They are still working hard, doing good devotion and devout faith, still hold a glimmer of hope, can reincarnate after death, and hope that the afterlife will be reborn to a higher caste class and enjoy a better life.

The concept of "Karma" and the phenomenon are not formed naturally. Even in the birthplace of India, it is not from the Vedic era, but after the implementation of the caste system. The "Karma reincarnation" is simply a well-planned scam. Regrettably and eccentrically, the poor buddies of the ancient patriarchs such as Brahmin and kshatriya, as well as civilians, slaves, and untouchables, have all become accomplices to promote this artificial mechanism because of religious beliefs!

Buddhism has inherited this ideology and gained the "five interest and six reincarnation paths", which further expanded the coverage of the "Karma". For whether the "killing sacrifice" is a crime, Buddhism is very different than other Hindu factions. Which party’s "Karma rule" is right? In fact: They are all wrong, starting with deception, so far it is still deceiving!


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:24:23 | 顯示全部樓層
Note 1:

Generally speaking, "reincarnation" usually also says "Rebirth"; however, the term "reincarnation" is broad and can cover " Rebirth" and "Circle". If used as an abbreviation, it is ok. However, if you want to delve deeper, it is necessary to make a clear distinction; because "reincarnation" is "reincarnation" and " Rebirth " is " Rebirth ", the two are not the same. Let's first say "reincarnation". This means that after a person dies, the soul rebirth as a person and continue to a new life. It means "returning to the world". Therefore, the word "return" in the reincarnation means "returning back". The "round" means "repeated, repeated" and "transition". However, "rebirth" is different. " rebirth " originally did not mean anything to come back to the world to "reinvent the world", but to mean that after death, the soul went to a different world to continue living, and there was no "return". Or you need to go through the process of reincarnation, because " rebirth " is just the migration of the soul. Therefore, in the so-called "original reincarnation" thought of the aboriginal people of India, it is inclined to "re-incarnate and rebirth as a human being”, or It mean that soul migration continues in other worlds? It is not clear at present, and I am afraid Hard to know. However, the author's long-term understanding of "soul research". "Rebirth as a human" should be a sporadic example, slowly oberserved by Indian aborigines, this concept, rather than the reverse, there is a sudden "revolutionary concept" and then the facts are formed, and it is not just an abstract concept. The "rebirth" is very different, because " rebirth " is only the migration of the soul. In the Hindu "five Sacrifices and two paths" or the reintroduction of the "four births and three paths", no matter the soul after death is promoted to "Heavenly Path, "Ancestral Path", or falling into "Hell Path", this migration change does not mean "returning to the world" or repeating it many times. Therefore, it cannot be called "reincarnation". Therefore, the "five sacrifices and two paths" or "four births and three paths" of Hinduism can only be called "rebirth" rather than simply "reincarnation”. It is equal to eternal life, and no longer comes back or migrates to other worlds. The same is true of the soul that was originally promoted to the "ancestral path". It is the "ancestor world" that lives with the ancestors forever, and no longer returns to the human world. However, when the Brahmins monks later developed the saying that "the heavens and the eternal life; the ancestral spirits may not be able to live forever", the key is to see whether the future generations continue doing the sacrifices. As long as the future generations continue to sacrifice (As China has said, the incense continues), the ancestors can live forever in the "ancestor world". Otherwise, it may be necessary to "reincarnate again, reincarnate as a person" to suffer from human suffering. Of course, this change is also stipulated in the "Manu Code", and of course the brave Brahmin monks are purposefully fabricated, because the rituals monopolized by them can become "business is booming, fame and fortune Received. In the same way, it can be seen from such a sudden change rule that the "Reincarnation mechanism" is of course not natural, but artificially fabricated. In addition, Buddhism's Sakyamuni not only inherits the Hindu revolutionary reincarnation, but also expands the interpretation of "six paths reincarnations". No matter whether Sakyamuni is aware of the fact that the soul is "reincarnation" because of the supernatural powers, there are still many elements of "six paths reincarnation" that are artificial. The truth of nature cannot be changed, these religious fabricated stories cannot deny the natural existing fact. Therefore, the complete developmental context that must be clarified is that the Indian aborigines have the original concept of "reincarnation". The invading ruler Aryan has some "rebirth". At the beginning, it did not emphasize "come back to human world". Reincarnation said that when the Brahmanism period was changed, the circle of "reincarnation" was added to the other three reincarnations. At this time, the doctrine of "reincarnation" was formed, and Sakyamuni completely inherited the teachings of Hinduism. Instead of deleting it, he added another three paths to the reincarnations, it has formed the "six paths reincarnation" theory. Unless it reaches the realm of Nirvana, it will suffer from the "revolution of the world", and the concept is not "soul migration", but is to repeat to reborn in six different worlds; and it also denies "the eternal life of heaven" and believes residents of "God heaven", once they have enjoyed the blessings, have to reshuffle their cards and once again return to reincarnation system. From the point of view of Buddhism, it can be said to be "the expression of Sakyamuni." However, from academic research, it is still only his own personal fabrication. Sakyamuni was just same as other the Brahmin monks who fabricated “two ways reincarnations” and “three ways reincarnation”.

Note2:

Note 2. When Brahmanism was revised from "Five Sacrifices and Two Paths" to "Four Lifes and Three Paths", the reason why "Hell Road" will be added is actually a very important key; that is, the rise of "Charvaka" Because, since there is a so-called "one-generation family", there is only this life, there is no afterlife, anyway, how to do good and devout faith cannot be transferred to heaven or ancestral road。 So even doing evil is not only worried about the afterlife. The result is that, inevitably, the idea of "no life after death, instant pleasure" is inevitable; lazy, alcohol, or rapists only seek the enjoyment of this life; such ideas and actions are of course unsatisfactory to the upper ruling class. Since the "regenerate family" and the "one-time family" are artificially defined in religion, of course, only the religious remedy can be effective. Therefore, the concept of "hell" is copied from " Atharvaveda " and expanded. The main purpose of hell is to prevent crime behavior of “one life family” However, from this point, it also provides a well-planned ironclad proof of “reincarnation is artificial”, which is a scam done by a political and religious collusion, for their own interest.

Note 3.

"Hinduism" begins with the oldest "Vedas" and has gone through "Bolmenism" and "New Hinduism". So far, there has always been the concept of "True-Altman" (soul), and I believe that "the soul is not destroyed." However, Buddhism does not recognize "Real My Atman" (soul) and thinks that it is only the flow of "mind". However, it is only playing with nouns. "Knowledge" (Araiye) is just synonymous with "soul". There is virtually no difference.

Note 4.

There is no ghost belief in India: it is very surprising; India is the birthplace of "Bolmenism" and "Buddhism". It has the concept of "reincarnation". However, there are almost no "ghost" beliefs and concepts, and children are not afraid." Ghosts, all the objects of sacrifice are all kinds of gods, no worship of ghosts. The reason is precisely because these two religions are convinced that "the reincarnation" and that there are different good and bad places after death, will not stay in the human world, on the one hand, this deep-rooted concept is caused by not worshipping the ghosts naturally reduces the number of ghosts that remain in the world. However, there are very few people who believe that the souls of "unexpected deaths" sometimes don't know where to go, and they will stay in human world for a while. This should be related to the rule of thumb. It is true that many such facts have been observed.

Note 5. For a detailed description of India's "revolving reincarnation concept", please refer to the author's book "Scam of thousand years, the reincarnations system", published in August 2011.
 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:27:28 | 顯示全部樓層
Talking about the relationship between "ghost" and soul

All nations have the legend of "ghosts".

All peoples have the concept of "ghosts".

All nations have a "ghost" belief.

All ethnic clan tribes "Shaman" and "Witchers" have "ex-spawn" functions.

All religions affirm the existence of "ghosts".

All religions have rituals for "exchanging ghosts" or "smashing ghosts".

The vast majority of the world’s population believes that there are "ghosts".

As long as people who believe in "there are ghosts", they are almost "afraid of ghosts"!

Therefore, more than half of the world’s people are “fear of ghosts”.

It has always been like this since ancient times. Why?

There are many sayings:

1) "Ghost" represents "death". Fear of death is the instinct of all living things. It is also the first priority for survival. Therefore, human beings are afraid of death and are also afraid of "ghosts".

2) The misconceptions that have been instilled from childhood are from the people who own the "ghost culture"; the inheritance of long-term cultural education from generation to generation has taught people to be afraid of "ghosts" or at least "respecting from the distance".

3) There are still many phenomena in the world that cannot be explained by science. People have innate instinct for things that are "unknown" or "not understood."

4) It is the instinctual fear of darkness in human beings since ancient times. Darkness symbolizes great danger to primitive human beings. It is often fatal. The relationship between "ghost" and darkness is so close, so naturally, we are afraid.

5) In ancient times, human beings were filled with deadly dangers all the time, and the intelligence of the people was not high. Many unexplained reasons made the death of their loved ones, companions or tribes linger. When there were somethings cannot be explained, they always blame on the supernatural forces associated with the "ghosts".

6) For someone who was severely frightened in his/her childhood, forming an indelible shadow in the subconscious, and then occasionally appeared in a dream with a non-figurative "ghost."

7) The simple "nightmare" was reorganized and distorted, turning the instinctual fear of the viper and beast into an unknowing creature - "ghost."

8) "nightmare" accidental sleep disorder, because for a moment the whole body cannot move, it is inevitable to have great fear, and associates with "ghost".

9) The inference of "the duality of good and evil": Because not only modern people, ancient humans have long observed that they "should" live in the world of "dualism". Everything is good or bad, beautiful and ugly, right and wrong. There are good and evil---- therefore, if you believe that "everything is alive," then "spirit" is of course good and evil like human beings. Therefore, there must be “evil ghost" among all the ghosts. Unfavorable, it will hurt or kill people, so they will be "fear of ghosts".

10) There are some "hot spots" that are prone to accidental deaths (such as drowning, falling cliffs, falling into the mud) or suicide. People always have the superstition fear of "driven by the ghosts."

All of the above explanations are reasonable and can even be used to support the explanation of why "human beings are afraid of ghosts." However, if these types of explanations are all just because they are more in line with the "scientific spirit" and thus "rational", it is less likely to be "not difficult" and "blame". However, these types of explanations are absolutely not enough, because all these discussions are completely in the outer circle, and not even close to the core of the problem.

Why don't you dare to discuss it directly with the core; the answer is the same as throwing a copper plate: First, "because the ghost really exists", and second, "there is no ghost at all."

Let us imagine a metaphor that I proposed: Suppose we have a hundred pieces of "jigsaw puzzles". According to the experience of the jigsaw puzzle veterans, they are all assembled from the outer frame, that is, the outermost frames of the four sides are first spelled out, so that Be able to determine the size of the entire puzzle first, then gradually merge it into the middle...

Suppose, after splitting more than half or even 2/3, we can see that this is a picture of "many people fleeing around," but the key secret is located in the center of the whole puzzle. If it is not completely flattened, it is impossible to know what is the danger of terror in the middle, what makes everyone stunned?

So, based on curiosity, continue to put together in the middle, and finally only two more pieces need to complete, but, for some reason or whether there is any mischief, the whole puzzle is missing the most critical two pieces in the middle; The reason why everyone flees in the picture cannot be explained without these two pieces.

How do we think?

We determined that the theme of this jigsaw puzzle was that people were greatly frightened and fled, but because of the lack of the two most critical tiles. So how do we know what causes the people in the picture to be so scared?

Of course, the most important thing is to find the two key pieces that have been lost. Perhaps the naughty brothers and friends mischievously hide it?

Here, let us first think about it; the reason why human beings are "afraid of ghosts", no matter how scientifically and reasonably explained, has it completely answered the doubts? Are there any other parts that are still unresolved?

Again, suppose; finally, the brother who always likes to prank recognizes that he deliberately hid the two most important tiles, and then said that it is hidden in an old moneybox in the attic.  So, hurried going up to the attic, opening the old moneybox, the two missing pieces were found!

Finally, suddenly realized why all the characters in the puzzle are running around. It turns out that the key content in these two tiles is...

If I sell a pass here; deliberately don't say it; don't know if the reader can guess what the key content in these two tiles is?

In fact, I have no other intentions, just hope that everyone will come to think about this problem together!

If, in case, these two pieces of tile are not intentionally hidden by mischief, but the coincidence is that the two pieces were lost when the jigsaw leaves the factory. Or this is an old jigsaw puzzle that many people have played. Nobody know when the two pieces were missing. I am afraid I will never find a key answer in this puzzle. However, it may not be completely desperate, because there will be only one piece of jigsaw made by the vendor. It may be easy to find a piece of the same content, and the same answer can be found.

So, my hypothesis is; no matter what the two key pieces of the lost piece are, when we find it, we find it out that "a ghost is biting the neck of a beautiful woman”. Then the story of the whole puzzle is complete.

Yes! I think the reader should already know my intentions; no matter how many pieces of the puzzle are there (how much is the explanation for human "fear of ghosts"?), the real key is simply that "humans have actually seen, touched, even long-term interaction, so know that "ghost" is real."

In fact, from the history, culture and beliefs of the primitive peoples of the world that can be studied today, there are "ghosts" and "ghost phobia" and " Exorcism" rituals. We can find an obvious vein to prove that in the history of human life, there is indeed a historical trace of "human beings and ghosts live together in the same space ". Whether it is not only same oral legend, but also record in written records, this history can not be denied or easily erased, and the length of "people and ghosts live together" era is quite long.

This is definitely not the author's alarmist or intentional sensation, because after decades of research on "practical soul science", the author has a lot of evidences to prove the existence of "soul" and "spiritual world". Use these evidences to compare the life history of human beings. (Note: refers to the human history from 75,000 years ago. Previously, the ancient and ancient human history of the past did not have clear evidence related to this theme, and there was no evidence available. Any specific information before that were abandoned, no matter what), you can find that "ghosts" do exist, and they are not archaeological fossil remains. They are still in existence until now, and even if they are moving toward the future, as long as humans exist for one day. "Ghosts" will continue to exist and are closely related to us. Therefore, we must not pretend ignore the core question “whether ghost exist” and use other story/theory to explain why human are afraid of ghost.

"Ghost" is a product derived from human beings. Although it does not exist from the beginning of human beings, there is a very long time for existing of ghost. A firm denial does not solve the problem, nor is it a truly rational attitude. We can agree that until now we cannot use physical or other scientific methods to capture or repeatedly study the existence of "ghost" or "soul", but physics and science are not the only way. We still have other ways to verify. We should not deny science, we will not deny science in the future. Similarly, the so-called scientific community cannot deny the existing of ghost, “cannot detect” not equal to “non-existing”. Just like the "black hole" was originally a theoretical hypothesis, but it has been confirmed the existence of black hole for a long time. Perhaps the development of science and technology in 30, 50 or even 100 years may affirm the existence of "ghosts" and "souls". Therefore, the arbitrarily negative nowadays is of course rash and ignorant.

Here, let's take a look at the "ghost concept" of all ethnic groups around the world. First, China's part, the "Han nation", which has the largest population, is temporarily put down. Let's take a look at the "ghost concept" of Chinese ethnic minorities:

Zhuang: The tribe believes that after death, the soul still lives on the other side of the bridge (the yin and yang connection in the concept of Zhuang people). It is also believed that the ancestors in the underworld can bless the sons and daughters of human world, make the peace a fortune, and eliminate the disaster. Many festivals of the year, ancestors can take the priority enjoy the incense, of which the Spring Festival and the Zhongyuan festival (Chinese Halloween) are two big sacrifices. In the concept of people, the ancestors are very sacred in the spirit of heaven. In some places, the Shinto ancestral sacred sacs are left in the wall, and the shrine is directly connected from the door side, and women are prohibited from standing at the Shinto exit. During QingMing Festival(Tomb-Sweeping Day), people will visit ancestor’s tomb. (Zhuang nation is distributed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Yunnan Province, Guangdong Province, Guizhou Province).


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:32:47 | 顯示全部樓層
Yao: The Yao people believe in ghosts and gods and worship the Taoist Taishang Laojun. These ghosts can be divided into two categories, one is the devils they fear and hate, who think they can cause illness or death; the other is the gods they think can exorcise ghosts and disasters.

They think that the devil has more than ten kinds of devils, such as the slaying ghosts, the coffin, the stray ghosts, the drug-bearing ghosts (that is, the poisoned suicide), the hanging-necked ghosts, and the sick ghosts. They are all objects of Taoist ethics in the Taoist practice. (This nationality is distributed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hunan Province, Yunnan Province, Guangdong Province, Guizhou Province, Sichuan Province)


                               
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Miao: It is also believed that some natural phenomena or natural objects are divine or ghostly. Therefore, in the language of the Miao nationality, the god and the ghost are basically the same sound, causing the ghosts and gods to be indivisible. In most cases, ghosts are formed from abandoned or aggrieved souls and tools, often causing disasters, illnesses, plagues or other misfortunes. The natural phenomenon of spirituality is often considered to be a good devil, with certain divinity, such as the mountain god, the valley god, the cotton god, the wind god, the thunder god, the rain god, the sun god, the moon god and so on. For the good devils and evil spirits, the methods of sacrifice for the Miao people are also different. The Miao people have a welcome to the good devil, and the sacrifice is more sincere, while the evil spirits must bribe and deceive until they drive away. (This Miao nationality is distributed in Guizhou Province, Yunnan Province, Hunan Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Sichuan Province, Guangdong Province, Hubei Province)

Dong people: Influenced by the concept of "everything is alive", the Dong people think that people have souls, and that human souls can exist independently from the flesh, and that their ancestors and the souls of the ancestors are living in another world. Therefore, a series of rituals such as green oil lamps, open roads, and soul-stricken rituals in the funeral ceremonies are aimed at avoiding the souls of the deceased to wander around and reunite with the ancestors. (This Dong nationality is distributed in Guizhou Province, China, Hunan Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region)



                               
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Maonan: On the funeral apparatus: the normal death of the elderly is listed as a family immortal; very old dead people can be included in the family after "repentance" procedures; the deceased under 35 years old, with or without children, are considered to be aborted and cannot be included in the ancestral spirits. Unusual deaths are considered wild ghosts. Like the Yi people, they also have "puppet show" in their culture (This nationality is distributed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China)

Yi: The Yi people believe in ghosts. They believe that the human soul can exist away from the human form. It is believed that the soul is attached to the body when it is born, and the soul is swaying in the world after death. The ancestral worship of the Yi people is characterized by the parental generation of "Madhu" ("comfort the soul") and "Yu Bi" ("escort the Spirit"). In this ritual, the soul of the deceased is turned into "Jill", sheltering the future generations without causing Become "Nu Ni" for the future generations. For the deceased, ask Bimo (the priest) to make a spiritual card (Madu) and enshrine it to avoid that the soul of the deceased wanders around. After the death of the older generation (direct), please come to Bimo to carry out the "successful ritual". Send the soul (Madu) away and let it go to the place where the ancestors first lived to live a leisurely life. In addition, all Chinese New Year people must enshrine the ancestors, and the ancestors will come back together for the holidays. (This Yi nationality is distributed in Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Guizhou Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region)



                               
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Gin nationality: China's only marine nation. In Vietnam, the Jing nationality is the main ethnic group. They believe that the underworld and human world is connected. the souls in the underworld and the relatives in the human world have some connection.  If the funeral was well organized, and they can be safe and peaceful. if the funeral is not good, the undead will suffer and they may bother the living relatives. In the case of elderly people over the age of 50, the time and place of funeral are chosen by the Master. Time is generally chosen when the tide falls. At the time of the trip, under the guidance of the Master, along the way, one person withdraws the money and opens the road first, meaning to buy the road from the wild ghost. (The Gin family is distributed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China)

Mulao people: There are collective cultivating and demonizing rituals, that is, "parade villages" and "parade hill", also known as "villages tour" and "hill tours" It is held every other year or two. In the event of a serious pest disaster, it could be held at any time. When this ceremony was held, first of all, "Ghost Master" was asked to set up an altar in front of the village, and then lined up to cast out ghosts. (The Mulao nationality is distributed in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region)



                               
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Bai: The religious beliefs of the Bai people are multi-deities. There are both primitive totem worship and Buddhist beliefs, but the belief in the Lord is the most unique. The "master" teaching is a religion that the Bai people believe in. The word "owner" means "the most noble protector of this region." The original God of the Bai nationality is the guardian god of "the combination of both human and god". It is gradually evolved from the ghosts of the original witchcraft under the influence of Buddhism. (The Bai nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China, within Guizhou Province)


                               
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Hani: They think that everyone has twelve souls. The death of a person is the reason why the main soul is away from the body and is harmed by natural gods or evil spirits. The Hani people believe that once a person dies, the body and the soul are separated, but the fate of the ghost is different depending on the situation: the normal death is upgraded to the ancestor; the abnormal death, and the unmarried men and women under 35, the ghost of death will evolve into an evil ghost. The Hani people generally like black, and they like to wear black and blue clothes, which are derived from the consciousness of avoiding ghosts and protecting themselves. Legend has it that people and ghosts are brothers. Human are older brothers, and ghosts are younger brother. They often fight. When the god "Momi" sees this, he tears down the black curtain and takes the opportunity to separate them. Later, people will be demarcated to avoid disputes. "Momi" also sent the previously used blackouts to people to prevent them from being entangled. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Dai: The ancestors of the Dai people believe that the soul coexists with the life of the living and is equal to life. But when a person dies, the soul is separated from the flesh, and the soul is followed by a ghost. The ghost will attach dead bodies to tease people. Ghosts don't just lie in the grave, they don't just stay in the world, they wander in any place or space with a chance. When a person dies, he will go to the gods and ghosts to live, and the ghosts may also be transferred to living people to live. Ghosts are divided into evil spirits and good ghosts; evil spirits are those who die abnormally, and good ghosts are those who die normally. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Lisu people: They hold various sacrificial gods and activities. The ghosts most often worshipped are: Heaven Ghosts, Mountain Ghosts, Home Ghosts, Dream Ghosts, and Water Well Ghosts. The forms and methods of sacrificial offerings are more complicated and varied. There are certain rules for what diseases and what sacrifices are made. In some areas of the Lisu people, there is also a belief in " Pendulum ghosts." This kind of ghost is often carried by a woman, so this woman is called " Pendulum woman." It is said that "Pendulum woman" can eat people. The main means of harming people is to inhale human blood. The Lisu people believe that these ghosts dominate the world and bring disasters to the people. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China, within Sichuan Province)



                               
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Va: In the concept of the Va people, mountains, rivers, and creatures, as well as all natural phenomena that cannot be explained, have "souls" or "ghosts."

"Ghosts and gods" is the meaning of Chinese translation. The Va people do not distinguish between "ghosts", "gods" and "ancestors". They are the same concept. They believe that the "ghost god" dominates the world and will bring danger to people, so they will be worshipped. The most adored by the west union Va people is "Muyiji", which is called "Meggie" by the Cangyuan Va people. It is regarded as the highest god who dominates the object, the "big ghost" that creates everything, it makes animals, plants and people. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)



                               
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Naxi: Dongba is an ancient religion widely believed by the Naxi people. It originated from the original witchcraft and is based on ancestor worship, ghost worship and nature worship. The rituals associated with ghost spirits include ancestor worship and sacrifice. The purpose of sacrifice is to guide the ancestors to the path of the "Spiritual" bliss, to avoid the intrusion of ghosts and gods. The Naxi people of Yongning County, Ninglang County, Yunnan Province believe that the deceased will leave their homeland and return to the distant place where the ancestors lived. Therefore, after the death, people should ask "Daba" to recite the "bible path exploring". The sacrifice of the wind is aimed at the souls of unnatural deaths such as excessive lyrical suicides and war disasters. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China, within Sichuan Province)


                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:38:19 | 顯示全部樓層
Jingpo: The Jingpo people believe that man is dominated by a unique "Nanla". Even after death, Nanla continues to survive. The religious rituals of the Jingpo people after their death are very cumbersome. After the funeral was held, another soul-giving ceremony was held for the deceased. The specific date of the soul sent by the wizard. Killing cows, pigs and chickens as sacrifices. Even after the gift has been sent, it is necessary to identify whether the soul of the deceased is actually sent away through some religious rituals. For these souls have not been sent away, the family need continue to enshrine them. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Lahu: The primitive religious consciousness of the Lahu people believes that human beings have souls. The activities of dreams are the activities of the soul. The human body and soul can be separated. When the human will die, the soul will leave the body, and the destiny of souls will be the place the ancestors live. The Lahu people divide the world into this world (for human) and the other world (for souls) and believe that the living environment and social environment of the two worlds are the same. Human society is continuing and developing in the process of mutual transformation between the two worlds. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Blang: They believe that the dead and the living human have a soul, the dead is ghost, and the living have a living soul. The soul of the living is attached to the living body, and when the person is sleeping and dreaming, the soul will temporarily leave the human body. When the soul leaves the human body, if it encounters the attachment of ghosts or ghosts, people will become sick and die. Therefore, when a person gets sick, a ritual of calling souls will be held for him/her, and then a chanting for "calling the soul" is created. Since the illness needs to call the soul, the patient will recover, and the chanting is expanded to animals and plants that are directly related to people's production and life, and they are considered to have the same soul as human beings. Therefore, chickens, pigs, cattle, horses, and sick people must also "calling the soul", and even if the crops have pests and diseases, they must hold a spiritual ritual. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Pumi: The primitive religion of the Pumi has a relatively complex system of ghosts and gods. It is commonly known as 800 gods and 3,000 ghosts. The tribe believes that people have three souls. After death, a soul goes to the public cemetery where the ashes are buried; one is near the house in the village; one is far away from the place where the ancestors on the big snowy mountains north of Muli County, Sichuan. They believe that after the death of the human body, the soul still exists, often in the human world, but sometimes it stays on the remains, so you need to leave small holes in the clay pots or bags that hold the ashes of the deceased, so that the soul can enter and exit. The Pumi funeral bible said that the ancestors lived in the north. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)


                               
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Achang: The ghosts and gods worshipped by the Achang people are three kinds of ghosts: heaven ghosts and earth ghosts and human ghost. Among them, human ghosts include domestic ghosts and wild ghosts. Furthermore, domestic ghosts are divided to big domestic ghosts (ancestor ghosts) and little domestic ghosts (near relation ghost), ghosts of blind woman who guard the barn, ghosts of the tribe, and ghosts of wealth. Wild ghosts are from unnatural death. The Achang people in Lianghe County of Yunnan believe that each person has three souls. After death, a soul is sent to the grave, a soul is provided at home, and a soul is sent to the ancestors. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Jino: The religious beliefs of the Jino people are nature worship and ancestor worship. They believe everything has a soul. Everything and phenomena in the world are related to ghosts. People get sick and agricultural disasters are all due to ghosts, so they must kill for sacrifices. However, the ancestor worship is in an important position. The family worship the ancestors. The village worship the patriarch elder who died. The ancestors lived in heaven and called "Shengjie Zuomei", where the world of bliss. When the Jino people hold the funeral ceremony, they must kill a dog on the spot and bury it on the coffin. It is said that the dog can lead the ghost in the underworld. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)



                               
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Nu Nationality: The early Nu people were prevalent in cremation, and the history of diversion to earth burial was about 200 years old. According to legend, a woman named Yane died in the past, and she was not burned completely. Seven days later, her soul went to see her family with a burnt scar and scared her child. From then on, the Nu people changed to earth bury. For the funeral, during the condolences, relatives and friends gathered in the hall to form a circle and hand in hand to jump off the "male dance" of the deceased to mourn the deceased and pray for their souls to shelter their children and grandchildren, not to harm family and friends. Before the ceremony, the soul-giving ceremony was held, and the singer sang "Send the Soul". The content is to guide the soul of the deceased, against the route of the clan migration, send the soul back to the birthplace where the ancestors lived. The Nu people do not have the habit of ancestor worship. They do not worship the ancestral spirit cards. After the death of the people, except for the first year of the grave, the graves will not be swept. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Deang people: In addition to believing in the Hinayana Buddhism, they also worship nature and believe in ghosts and gods. For example, the Deang people in Dazhongzhai of Baoshan County worship a variety of gods such as the mountain god, the zombie god, the tree god, the earth god, and the dragon king. Each year, various religious sacrifices are held.

Sacrifice Ghost Tree: There is a "ghost door" on each side of the village cold. A big tree near the "Ghost Gate" is called a ghost. The Deang people will sacrifice the ghost tree on the third day after the Songkran Festival. The ghost tree is usually held at five o'clock in the night. At that time, twenty-three adults will send a wooden board with dragons, tigers and other fierce beasts to the ghost tree, knocking on the chanting and offering a little meal, and then the person who sent it quietly left and returned. at home. Sending a high voice is to let the ghosts quit after the ghost door, quietly go home is not to let the ghosts notice and follow home. Usually, after the person is sick, ask the Buddha to chanting the ghosts and go to the ghost tree to burn the paper. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)

Derung: In the religious consciousness of the Derung people, people and animals have two souls, namely, the living spirit "Bula" and the soul of the dead "Axi". The creature "Bula" exists only when the body is alive. After the disappearance of "Bula", another soul of the human being, the soul of the dead, "Axi" came one after another. Except for the wizards, the average person cannot see "Axi." "Axi " is different from ghosts and elves. It is only a person who lives in another world. The Dulong people do not have the concept of God. They simply refer to ghosts, elves, gods, etc. as ghosts, and divide ghosts into ghosts and heaven ghosts and earth ghost. They think that the earth ghosts are ferocious and terrible. The harm is great, but the ghosts in the sky are the masters of born and death and bless humanity. (This nationality is distributed in Yunnan Province, China)



                               
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Buyei: In the ancient religious concept of the Buyei people, it is believed that there will be ghosts after death. If people encounter it, they will make people sick. They must go through the divination of the witches, know who the ghosts are, and then hold the corresponding sacrifices. The ceremony is begging for blessing so that the patient will heal. The Buyei ancestors believed that ghosts have two kinds of good devils and evil spirits. Good devils are not harmful, but it is unlucky to encounter it. The Buyei people are mainly targeting evil spirits. One is to carry out a large-scale ghost-sweeping activity held in the village as a unit - sweeping the village, not allowing outsiders to enter the village when sweeping the village; second, someone in the family is sick, thinks that there are evil spirits, and also ask the wizard to drive the ghost. (This nationality is distributed in Guizhou Province, China)

Gelao: The religious beliefs of the Gelao people are mainly nature worship and ancestor worship. The "puppet show" in folk culture can be classified into the category of witchcraft. The “puppet show” is a folk art with both witchcraft rituals and theatrical performances, which is the main manifestation of exorcism, ghosts, and blessings, and is a sect of witchcraft. For different purpose of the “puppet show”, there are little witchcraft show and big witchcraft show. (This nationality is distributed in Guizhou Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Yunnan Province)



                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:41:02 | 顯示全部樓層
Shui: ghost worship is the core of the original religious beliefs of the Shui. Shui believe the ghost is with god, and the ghost cannot separate from God. Ghosts have the distinction between good ghosts and evil ghosts. When people die, they become ghosts. In the primitive religious worship of the Shui ancestors, the ghost was emphasized to an unusual position. Until today, in the superstition consciousness of the Shui, more than 300 famous ghosts can be counted, plus the name that has existed and lost its name. Ghosts, as many as seven or eight hundred. (This nationality is distributed in Guizhou Province, China, within the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region)

Tujia: Tujia people used to believe in ghosts and gods. Generally speaking, they think that God will protect peace and ghosts will bring disasters. Therefore, their attitude toward ghosts and gods is different. They provide sacrifices to gods and use witchcraft to expel and kill ghost. The person who is engaged in the sacrifice of god and expelling ghost called Tusi, and the Tusi was called "Tima". During the period of Tusi's reign, he covers a lot of things. He could control the village's sacrifices, exorcism, wishing, pledge, marriage and wedding, seeking children, seeking rain, resolving disputes, treating diseases, divination, funeral and so on. The instruments used by Tujia's old masters include teacher's knives, sickles, bronze bells, horns, and colorful crocodile sticks. The costumes are worn with phoenix crowns, and they are worn with flowers and scorpions. The Tujia people think that evil spirits include Ma Yang ghosts, grass ghosts, water ghosts, and white tigers. These ghosts bring disaster, disease and even death to human. (This nationality is distributed in Hunan Province, Hubei Province, Sichuan Province)

Qiang people: Qiang people believe in ghosts and gods. The sorcerer of the Qiang people, known as the “Qiang duan gong”

In some areas of the Qiang people, there are memorial rituals of "rushing horses" and "turning the road." "Rushing horse" is actually a kind of Qiang people's wish, which means that the deceased can raise to heaven. The meaning of "turning road" means that the deceased will return from the place where the ancestors once migrated, from the place where they passed by, to their graves. At the same time, according to the customs of the Qiang, after the death of a person, the ghost will not be scattered, abut come back to home. Qiang call it as “return of spirit” The funeral family will ask the monk to calculate the time of return, then put the clothes of the deceased on the chair and placed the shoes in front of the chair. At the same time, the table was placed with food, wine and other foods. The family walk away from home. After a few hours, the guns were fired, and the souls heard the sound and left, and the family returned home. (This nationality is distributed in Sichuan Province, China)

She people: The gods believed by the She people are composed of four major categories: the She people worship the ancestors, and the "King ancestors" are listed as the primary content of the family regulations, and they believe that the ancestors have spiritual spirits, can protect the children.  She people even regard the ancestors as Protect God and worship. For She people lived for more than 50 years old and died, first wash the clothes for the deceased, the filial piety filial piety to the riverside, ignite three incense, burn paper money to sing "buy water songs." Singing. Drowning in the river, commonly known as "buy water." (This nationality is distributed in Fujian Province, Zhejiang Province, Jiangxi Province, Guangdong Province, Guangdong Province, Anhui Province)


                               
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Manchu: The religion of faith is shamanism, Buddhism, and Lamaism. Among them, shamanism is the most representative. When the old man is dying, he must wear the shroud before he swallows, and immediately cover the mirror with a red cloth. Legend has it that the soul of the deceased saw the mirror as a river and did not dare to leave home, so the mirror had to be covered. On the 3rd day after the death, "send three" in front of the Guandi Temple, burn incense, offering supplies, burning paper money (writing the recipient, the devotee). On the 7th, it was the day for the soul to leave, and the day was placed in the bedroom of the deceased, and the soul of the deceased was enjoyed. The family remained absolutely quiet to avoid bothering the ghost. After the funeral, it means "cooking rice," that is, burning the deceased's offerings, pillows, and clothing. (This nationality is distributed in Liaoning Province, Jilin Province, Heilongjiang Province, Hebei Province, Beijing, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region)

Xibe: Belief in the mother of “Xi Li Mom”, Shamanism, Tibetan Buddhism. The “Xi Li Mom”in the Northeast Xibe translated into "Mother of children and grandchildren", meaning that with the female ancestors, the children and grandchildren can continue to proliferate, from generation to generation; also includes the meaning of blessing the home and the prosperity of the people. (This nationality is distributed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Liaoning Province, Jilin Province)

Hezhe: The Hezhe people believe in the soul and believe that humans have three souls: the first soul is called "Aoren", the so-called soul of life, both humans and animals, and the human body leaves the body after death; the second soul is called "Hani". The so-called soul of thought, it can temporarily leave the body, such as when a person sleeps, it can have an interaction with other souls; the third soul is called "FanYanku", the so-called reincarnation of the soul, after the death, it leaves the body, it has the ability to create a living. The three souls have different roles: the first soul, which is destroyed after death; the second soul still exists, and it needs to be sent to the underworld (send the soul) through the "smashing" ritual; the third soul, which can enter new people or animals. The Hezhe people worship their ancestors, and they are convinced that the souls of their ancestors are immortal and have a protective effect on the living. (This nationality is distributed in Heilongjiang Province, China)

Oroqen: The ancestral god Oroqen called "Ajiaonuburukan". "Ajiaonu" means the root. The Oroqen people believed that the soul of the ancestors also had the effect of protecting or punishing those who lived in the clan. The Oroqen people believe in the original shamanism. The Oroqen people believe that the human soul is not destroyed. When a person dies, he becomes a ghost. He wants to go to the "Yama Gate" (the underworld), and human can't just offend the ghost. When souls go out, they have the custom of shooting the "leader arrow", that is, the “sending soul” ceremony. In some areas, there is a custom of "Pull the line." The shaman made a grassman, and the grassman has several lines, and the children of the deceased follow each other. At the funeral site, the shaman recited the rituals. After reading it, he breaks the line with the "Holy stick" and threw the grass man far away to show that the soul of the deceased was far away and did not involve the living. (This nationality is distributed in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Heilongjiang Province)

Ewenki: The various gods worshipped by the Ewenki are in full equality. The Ewenki people generally believe in the cattle gods in East Heavens, the horse gods of the Western Heavens, and the gods of the "Kaha" gods. In addition, the Ewenki people also made the clan ancestors a god. People respect those who have rich experience and knowledge in production, and after they die, the tree is worshipped for the gods. Like the Oroqen people, they also have a "send the soul" ceremony, but in different forms, when Ewenki Shaman "send the soul", they kill the reindeer owned by the deceased, and the head is placed in the direction of the sunset to be buried, meaning "soul" riding the reindeer to the underworld. (This nationality is distributed in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Heilongjiang Province)

Daur: Mainly believe in shamanism. Like the Oroqen and Ewenki people, there is a "send the soul" ceremony in the funeral ritual. During sending the soul, the shaman needs a willow bow and three willow arrows and recited a song of “sending soul” in the house. After that they carry out various activities, and finally begin to take off. (This nationality is distributed in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Heilongjiang Province, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region)

Li people: "Ancestral ghost worship" has penetrated into all aspects of the daily life of the Li people. "Ancestral ghosts" are a kind of ghost that makes people sick. Depending on the type of sacrifice, it can be divided into "grand ancestor ghosts", "middle ancestor ghosts" and "little ancestor ghosts". They kill the cattle for the "grand ancestor ghost", kill the pig for the "middle ancestor ghosts”, and kill the dog or chicken for “little ancestor ghosts”. Because the ancestors loved to harm people and made people sick, it is strictly forbidden to say the names of ancestors in daily life. Because, once you say the name of the ancestors, you will attract the ancestors to harm others. (This nationality is distributed in Hainan Province, China)



                               
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 樓主| 發表於 2019-1-22 17:43:50 | 顯示全部樓層
Tu: The Tu people mainly believe in the Gelug Sect in Tibetan Buddhism, and also believe in Shamanism, Bon, Taoism, Confucianism, local gods, and the Sakya (Flower) and Nyingma (Red) in Tibetan Buddhism. Kagyu School (White Church) and so on. The Tu people also have the “puppet show”.  The purpose of the “puppet show” is for exorcism of ghost, rewarding God, and blessing. Focusing on witchcraft activities, Tu people engage the natural worship, ancestor worship, ghost worship and the concept of animism. (This nationality is distributed in Qinghai Province, China, Gansu Province)

The Lhoba: There is no obvious distinction between the concept of ghosts and gods in the concept of Lhoba. They collectively referred to "ghosts", "elfs", "spirits" and "ghosts" as "Wuyou", which is all kinds of "ghost". They believe that "Wuyou" can be attached to any natural objects and people, so that natural objects and people have the attributes of "elf" and "ghost." There are many kinds of "Wuyou", they are everywhere, and it is about all areas of production and life.

Ancestor Worship: This is another important feature of Lhoba people, emerged after the patriarchal clan system replaced the matriarchal clan system. It is based on the concept of undead soul. In its essence, it is also the worship of ghosts. (This nationality is distributed in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China)

Koreans: The Koreans living in China are generally found in a simple family-based belief in customs. For example, the kitchen serves Vulcan "King of the Kitchen" and prays for peace in the house; the inner house serves the god of production or the ancestors to pray for the healthy growth of the peasant and the children; the priest serves the "God" and prays for peace in the house; Pray for wealth and so on. In addition, he also serves the measles god "Hu Ghost", the smallpox god "None phase", the "Holy General" who guards against the bad ghosts, the clan god "JunXiong”, The "Shui Tianfu" is for blessing; “mountain god” is if wealth, and “seven stars god” is for longevity. the "Princess of Bali", "Ten King" or "The Messenger" are for Dead sprint.  Although the way of serving these gods is relatively simple (during the festival or a simple sacrifice in the event of an unexpected disaster), there is no standardized procedure, but it shows that the Korean Shamanistic belief still exists. And many of the more standardized religious rituals have been produced, such as "The Kitchen King", "The God of the Emperor", "The Lord", "The Fortune", "The Disease", "Neon Spirit Feeding Festival" and so on. (This nationality is distributed in Jilin Province, China, Heilongjiang Province, Liaoning Province)

Kazakh: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah ", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Hui: Islam: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Kirgiz Yi: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Uyghur: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Dongxiang: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Salar: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", and believes that the world is full of "ghosts and gods" that will confuse people.

Tajik: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Bonan: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Russians: Orthodox.

Yugur: Tibetan Buddhism: a very strong belief in ghosts and gods, and the concept of "reincarnation" (This nationality is distributed in China)

Uzbek: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", and believes that the world is full of "ghosts and gods" that will confuse people.

Tatar: Islam: Believe in Islam: worship "Allah", also believes that the world is full of "ghost spirits" that will confuse people.

Mongolian: Originally believed in shamanism, later changed to Tibetan Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism: a very strong belief in ghosts and gods, and the concept of "revolving the world." (This nationality is distributed in China)

Tibetans: Bon, Tibetan Buddhism, and folk beliefs Tibetan Buddhism: a very strong belief in ghosts and gods, and the concept of "revolving the world." (This nationality is distributed in China)

Monpa: Tibetan Buddhism and Primitive Religion Tibetan Buddhism: a very strong belief in ghosts and gods, and the concept of "reincarnation" (This nationality is distributed in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China)

Taiwan's aborigines: including Ami, Atayal, Paiwan, Bunun, Rukai, Puyuma, Tsou, Saisiyat, Tao, Thao, Kebalan, Taroko, The Sakizaya and the Sedek.

In the ancient thoughts of Taiwan's aboriginal people, there is animism concept ("everything is a spirit"). They believe that in addition to the flesh, there is a "soul" that can leave the flesh. A good spirit becomes a "god" and a bad spirit becomes. "Evil ghost." Since the tribe believes that all things are spiritual, and, without exception, all of the Taiwanese aboriginal groups have ancient and firm "ancestor worship", so the rituals of the aborigines are very rich, in addition to the fixed ceremonies. In case of some important things, they also worship and inform the ancestors. Because of the narrow geographical relationship; the basic beliefs are almost the same, only the nouns and some ritual details are different, so here are just a few representative ethnic groups:

Ami: They believe the God of natural landscapes manipulate the disaster and blessings. They believe in the God who create the nature and all the blessings are controlled in the hands of the gods. The Ami people were originally a multi-god-believing nation, and all kinds of activities and illnesses have exclusive gods. And each of the gods has a fixed orientation, and the worship is in the right direction, and there must be no mistakes; kawas is the core concept, which refers to the gods, the ghosts, the ancestors, the elves of animals and plants, and the souls of human beings. It is very complicated. concept.

The belief of the Tao people stems from the so-called "good spirits" that extend to the sun, the moon, the mountains and the sea of nature. They are convinced that all the worlds with natural vitality have the existence of elves, and they have the power to dominate people's actions. Among the many gods, the Tao people, like other aborigines, especially worship the ancestral spirits, and because of the belief in the worship of the ancestral spirits, they have condensed the strong integration of the tribes, and all activities such as sowing and weeding are certain. The ceremony prayed for the blessing of the ancestors. In addition to the ancestral spirits, there is a supreme god "tao do to", and there is also a fearful ghost "Anito". The Tao people believe that the gods dominate all-natural phenomena and believe that God will punish those who do bad things in a timely manner. The ghost "Anito" is regarded as an evil spirit by the Tao people. It is the supernatural force that they are most concerned about in their daily life. They think that the ghost will bring misfortune and will lead to illness, which is the root of all bad luck. In order to fight these evil spirits, the Tao people usually wear armor to ward off evil spirits.


                               
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Atayal: There is a clear concept that there is only one God, but its concept of existence is abstract, so it does not become a sacrifice object. The content of his religious activities is centered on the creating gods (Utux kayal), the good souls (blaq na Utux), the taboo of evil souls (Yaqih na Lyutux), and the witchcraft (Phgut), and Mhoni (curse) and other methods. They believe that the soul has two kinds of "living" and "dead" and "good" and "evil". If the soul is dead, it is a good spirit, the murderer is an evil spirit, and the good spirit can go to the spiritual world, blessing Offspring, evil spirits stay in the world, causing trouble or illness. The sorcerer's function is to use the instrumental instruments, and the curse is used to treat the patient, and it can be used for divination, fierceness, and blessing. The ancestral spirit sacrifices faith and believes that the ancestral spirit has the influence of manipulating the life and death of the human being, and sacrifices to the dead parents or ancestors. Believe that the ancestral spirit has supernatural ability, it will affect the blessings and fates of future generations. They believe that the ancestors need to drink and have fun in the underworld, so the children and grandchildren are obliged to provide their needs, to offer food and sacrifice to the ancestors of the underworld (the post-mortem world view), to worship the ancestors to exorcise the evil.


                               
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