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12 Taiwan Ghost Research Chapter 11: Animism and Ghost Concept 鬼學 第十一章 萬物有靈論與鬼神觀念

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發表於 2018-12-4 00:38:16 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
Taiwan Ghost Research Chapter 11:  Animism and Ghost Concept

Author :Chang Kai-Chi      張開基

translation:北展昭

(You are welcomed to share and reprint but please indicate the source and author)

The brief history of human religious development is as follows,

Ever since the life on earth slowly evolved into a creature that we now call "human” or at least before the "Home Erectus", there had never been any clue left about "ghost" in the long years of billions of years. The "ghost" message did not leave any archaeological evidence to prove that "Deity" or "ghost" coexisted with other creatures. And only human being have connection with Religion.

Religion, like "ghosts and divines", is only related to people and has a active interaction with human.

Other creatures have no religion nor belief and no need to serve any god.  They do not worry about religion would have anything to do with their thoughts and behaviors.

From the Home Erectus of 7 million years ago, humans had passed at least 90% time durations of what can be called "chaotic ignorance". It is not easy to estimate and define clearly, even they are called "human" or "our ancestors" seems they had not too many differences with other creatures in life style aspects.

Then, when the intelligence was greatly improved, with the accumulation of language, thinking ability and imagination—they started to recognize the relationship between itself and the natural environment with the instinct of the fear of nature and the emergence of many taboos, the first form was "Animism" and “Shaman”--concepts and primitive religious prototypes domination.

Then, the "multi-divine worship and belief" led the "polytheism" was later formally developed. (Note: "Multi-god worship" and "formal polytheism" are different. For example, we in China had the history belonged to the regional multi-divine beliefs of different ethnic groups with different expressions. It had not integrated a fixed form of "multi-divine religion", including the Central Plains Han, the northern nomads, the south and the southwestern minority. There was a great difference in the belief in polytheism. Even though the Eastern Han Dynasty finally had the Taoism of the local religion, it only contained the majority of the national beliefs of "Tai Shang Laojun", "Jade Emperor" and "Western Queen". These gods, there were still many minority ghosts and gods beliefs not officially incorporated into).

Almost at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Buddhism began to spread in China, and it developed rapidly during the Northern and Southern Dynasties and flourished in the Sui and Tang Dynasties----

At the same time, Persian worship (the martyrdom), Catholicism,  Nestorianism and later Islam (Islam) were introduced to China along with Silk Road.

However, the Chinese have always embraced all kinds of religions  to worship so could gain safety subconsciously. (This mentality also created Deities and ghosts belief everywhere).

Everywhere in the world have changed from "multi-divine beliefs" or "polytheism" to "monotheism", and these changes are all artificial (mostly political factors involved, such as the Roman Empire originally believed in Greek polytheism, once stunned Killing Christians, when they arrived at Emperor Constantine, they converted to Christianity for political unification, and officially designated as the state religion when Diodosius-I was);

There is one undenyable fact:  no matter the mainstream or non-mainstream "monotheism" in the world today, all were originated from the initiation of a single individual who received the god’s inspirations.

Judaism: Moses claimed to be inspired by God (and saw God in Sinai) was given the "Ten Commandments" and passed down;

Christianity: from Jesus who claimed to be the Son of God, was regarded as the Messiah in the prophecy. Although he was finally crucified on the cross, he also claimed to receive "God’s inspirations."

Islam: from Muhammad, also claimed to have received the Holy Spirit and obtained the Koran to pass down.

Buddhism: Sakyamuni claimed to be enlightened under the Bodhi tree and was followed by many disciples and believers to form Buddhism. Although Sakyamuni himself did not worship a god, in fact, he was the embodiment of "one god", so it can still be regarded as " Monotheism”.

Mormonism; John Smith professed to receive the gods and get the golden engraved "Mormon" to form a new religion.

Other sects attached to Christianity did not have their own main gods. But they still were inspired by "God" or "Yahweh", etc., such as Korea's "unity teaching."

In fact, the word "God" in the Chinese word was originally the word "申", which refers to lightning or thunder.  Because the Chinese ancients had the imagination of "the deification of the natural energy" of thunder and lightning, so "Deity (shen)" It does not simply mean "the natural phenomenon of thunder and lightning" but thinks that there was a dominating god. Later, "Deity shen" was borrowed, so a "show" was added to emphasize and refer to a specific object "God"!

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