天地自然人

 找回密碼
 立即註冊
查看: 90|回復: 1

"Stockholm Syndrome" Type 2 (Part 1) 『斯德哥爾摩症候群』第二型(上篇)

[複製鏈接]
發表於 2018-11-3 11:17:08 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
本帖最後由 赫生童子 於 2018-11-3 11:20 編輯

"Stockholm Syndrome" Type 2 (Part 1)

Author :Chang Kai-Chi

If you understand the psychological term "Stockholm Syndrome", it's great. If you didn’t hear about it before, it doesn't matter. Please refer to the "References" in the appendix for a brief overview. I thought about it for a while and found that some people have a strange "mental status", not about genes or diseases, but a personality trait that is particularly prone to obvious effects, because there are no proper nouns to describe. In summary, it is very similar to "Stockholm Syndrome", but it is not exactly the same, so it is temporarily named "Stockholm Syndrome Type 2"; Let us first look at some relevant cases, it is easier to understand this psychological state.

In Taiwan, the tricks of fraud in recent years are really ever-changing. These swindlers are always innovating but the most common and time-honored, most popular is the "congratulations on winning" trick, and the success rate and fraud amount of this name They have always been at the top of the list;

Usually, the victim will receive a "winning notice" first, but now it is a "winning newsletter" or directly call someone to name the report "Congratulations for winning!", although you have never participated in any lottery, etc. Waiting for activities, it doesn't matter, the fraud group will always try to convince you; they are from the phone book, handling all kinds of documents, or the usual information such as ID card, driver's license number, etc., picked up by the random number of computers. Your "Cosmic Super Invincible Lucky" will usually say that you have a prize of 700,000 or 900,000 (and there will be some fractions. Because it is an event hosted by the Hong Kong Jockey Club, it is converted into Taiwan dollars in Hong Kong dollars. There must be a fraction of the number after the actuarial calculation, so it is easier to make victim believe it), then they will arrange various roles to play, and eager to provide several calls, including the organizer, certified lawyers, etc. for your verification.

When you finally unload the initial defense, feeling a little dizzy, and you are dubious ready to receive the bonus. Probably you started making a little plan how to spend the accidental wealth that fell from the world. The problem is coming, the amount of the prize is not that big, not small neither, but they will not send the money to your home directly. You must have basic personal information and a bank account, and you must pay 15% of the tax first. This is stipulated by the government of the Republic of China, it is same even you won the prize abroad, so if you assume that you have won 800,000 bonuses, you must first pay a tax of 120,000 yuan.

Of course, before the lottery authority remit from Hong Kong to you, you must first pay a tax of 120,000. Because it is a cross-border relationship, the tax rate is different, and the two parties have no formal diplomatic relations. The organizer cannot withhold the income tax, so you must pay the tax will be paid first. After being handled by the Taiwan branch, the official documents of the Taiwan tax authorities will be sent to Hong Kong for review before the full bonus can be remitted to you -----------

If you start to doubt the prize, or if your family and friends don't believe it and stop you to "pay taxes." then there won't be a series of "symptoms" after the scam. However, the fraud group(swindlers) are well trained. Of course, they will try their best to make you believe that you really won the prize.

Thinking about there is always a risk for any business, most people treat it as gambling. They first pay the tax in advance, waiting for the prize to come in, and then how much total they will gain after the deduction of tax. Vow! There are still 680k! Buy a new domestic car, there is still left, and even buy a small diamond ring for his wife, Ha! awesome!

However, after paid 120,000 tax, it is silent, there is no update after that. After waited for a while, they call you! “wow! Great congratulations, I have never seen a lucky guy like you, you are the super lucky one!”

---- what happened?

congratulations! Your original bonus was not received in time because of the multinational operations. Therefore, the organizer used the bonus of you and a few other winners as the bet for the annual competition. The result is really damn good. You are the only winner of the serial winning prize, which has accumulated 7 times, which is equivalent to 5.6 million Taiwan dollars!

Then, of course, you will inevitably have some doubts. It doesn't matter. The fraud group has a complete set of "cheating recipe", so there will be a lot of “powerful people” appear to prove it, and even a lot of beautiful written proofs will be mailed to you. so that you can fully I believe that you are really lucky, cannot resist the fact that you are just the lucky one.

5.6 million Taiwan dollars! Enough to buy a house!

Again, you have to pay taxes and some fees first, you must first pay in advance of 780,000 to fully receive the 5.6 million----------

mind was in a turmoil

So, at same time, your mind is in a turmoil. Is that a scam? Is there such a good thing that will happen to me? The chance of that should be lower than lightning strike!

It’s hard to say oh; how little is the chance, there is always a lightning strike every day? And look at the various lottery colors in Taiwan. Every week, there are people won the prize, and even one person won hundreds of millions dollar!

In fact, the most important key come to play. Before that, I have already remitted 120,000 to them. If I refuse to pay the 780,000 for now, then it is a waste of effort. Even the 120,000 will be confiscated, and the loss will be more than 100,000. Therefore, the so-called "Stockholm Syndrome Type 2" officially began to ferment at this time, after the parties' hearts have turned around and suffered, they finally chose to believe the case, try one more time, just like gambling.

Many people are in this psychological role, and finally they have been deceived again and again, and at last they have remitted more than ten times. The total amount has accumulated millions or even tens of millions of " hard-earned money ". People who have a clear head can't figure out how "what would be such a stupid person in the world? ? ?

However, there are really no such stupid people. In fact, people who are deceived are as normal as you are, but once they were in the second type of "Stockholm Syndrome", they will become very abnormal and their behavior will be completely unreasonable. Moreover, each time the person is defrauded, and the money was remitted. As the amount increases, the confidence of the “winning prize” case will increase. In the end, even he got totally lost, even the family and friends detect the abnormality, and the dissuasion/communication is useless. Even The police’s participation in the dissuasion also made him unable to change his mind, and even shouted at the police, arguing that the police were limiting his freedom.

--- why? Were they drugged? Was it enchanted?

Neither! The real key is the feature of "Stockholm Syndrome Type 2". The victims are not willing to believe that they have been deceived! In particular, the more times the money is remitted, the greater the amount, the more he dare not face the truth, instead "selectively ignore the various warnings", deliberately avoiding doubts, the more self-hypnosis believes that he is not so unlucky, he Not so stupid, even when the mind is slightly vigilant, he also quickly swayed, trying to keep betting, hope that there will be a miracle, and finally win tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of gold, you can show off to family and friends : Look! I am not stupid! Waiting for a long time is mine! You didn't believe me at the beginning, I thought I was stupid, I was deceived, look! Now a lot of money is in front of you? Envy?

This is the mentality of the " Stockholm syndrome type 2". They will increasingly believe in swindlers, and finally become addicted to the scam. Nothing in the world could change their mind.

The key of the problem, these victims are just like the gambler who lost money in casino, and desperately want to make that money back. They play again the winning probability of casino. In some underground casino, they are playing against someone who have a card up his sleeve.  These gamblers just refuse to acknowledge the loss, so at last they will lose everything.

Some cases similar to “Stockholm Syndrome Type 2” exist in religions and psychic scams.  These victims either lost money or deceived to have sex with the swindlers. These are bad, but not the worst. For the worst case, there are two kinds of situations:

a) After lost money to the swindlers, the victims force themselves believe that the swindler are someone with super power. They cannot face the truth that they are deceived. These victims even tell others that the swindlers really have super powers.

b) The victims realized that they got deceived, either money or sex. But they victims worry about the swindlers have some special power, or the victims promised to God that “I will not betray”. The victims just keep silent, other than fight back.

More details about that, will be discussed in next article, to be continued.

Reference:

Stockholm syndrome is a condition that causes hostages to develop a psychological alliance with their captors as a survival strategy during captivity. These alliances, resulting from a bond formed between captor and captives during intimate time spent together, are generally considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims. The FBI's Hostage Barricade Database System and Law Enforcement Bulletin shows that roughly 8% of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome.

This term was first used by foreign media in 1973 as eponym when four hostages were taken during a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. The hostages defended their captors after being released and would not agree to testify in court against them. Stockholm syndrome is ostensibly paradoxical because the sympathetic sentiments captives feel towards their captors are the opposite of the fear and disdain an onlooker may feel towards the captors.

There are four key components that generally lead to the development of Stockholm syndrome:

•A hostage's development of positive feelings towards their captor

•No previous hostage-captor relationship

•A refusal by hostages to co-operate with police forces and other government authorities

• A hostage's belief in the humanity of their captor, for the reason that when a victim holds the same values as the aggressor, they cease to be perceived as a threat.

Stockholm syndrome is considered a "contested illness", due to many law enforcement officers' doubt about the legitimacy of the condition. Stockholm syndrome has also come to describe the reactions of some abuse victims beyond the context of kidnappings or hostage-taking. Actions and attitudes similar to those suffering from Stockholm syndrome have also been found in victims of sexual abuse, human trafficking, discrimination, terror, and political and religious oppression.

And usually Stockholm Syndrome will go through the following four major stages:

•Fear: The current situation has changed because of sudden coercion and intimidation.

•Worry: Covered in an uneasy environment, both body and mind are threatened.

•Sympathy: The long-term relationship with the defender recognizes that the other party has acted in a way and has not been directly harmed.

•Help: Give the instincts invisible help, such as cooperation, do not escape, appease, etc.; or tangible help, such as assisting to escape, telling the judge, fleeing, etc.
 樓主| 發表於 2018-11-3 11:19:27 | 顯示全部樓層
『斯德哥爾摩症候群』第二型(上篇)

作者:張開基

翻譯員:某君


如果你了解『斯德哥爾摩症候群』這個心理學名詞,那很好,如果不是很了解也沒關係,請參閱附錄的「參考資料」就會知道梗概。

我思索了一段時日,發現某些人會有一種奇特的「心理狀態」,並無關於基因或者疾病,而是一種特別比較容易產生明顯效應的人格特質使然,因為沒有什麼專有名詞可以來概括,卻非常類似『斯德哥爾摩症候群』,不過,又不完全相同,所以暫時將之定名為『斯德哥爾摩症候群第二型』;

我們先來看一些相關的案例,比較容易了解這種心理狀態;

在台灣,近年來詐騙的手法真的是千變萬化,而且時時在推陳出新,但是,最普遍而且歷久彌新,永不退流行的就是「恭喜中獎」;而且這種名目的詐騙成功率和詐騙金額都是一直能名列榜首的;

通常,被害人都是先會收到一張「中獎通知書」,現在則是一通「中獎簡訊」或者直接就是有人打電話指名報告「恭喜你中獎了!」,雖然你從來沒有參加任何摸彩等等的活動,那也沒關係,詐騙集團總是會設法讓你相信;他們是從電話簿啦、辦理各種證件啦,或者身份證、駕照字號等等很平常的資料,由電腦隨機選號挑中了你這位「宇宙超級無敵的幸運兒」,通常會先說你中了70萬或者90萬的大獎(而且會有一些零頭,因為是香港賽馬協會主辦的活動,所以是以港幣換算成台幣,精算後一定有零頭出現,這樣比較容易取信於你),然後他們就會安排各種角色出場,並且熱心提供好幾支電話,包括主辦單位,認證律師等等來供你查證;

等你終於卸下初步心防,半信半疑而總有一些暈陶陶的準備要領取獎金,並且有點計劃要怎樣花用這筆天下掉下來的意外之財時;問題來了;這筆說大不大說小不小的獎金不是可以這麼輕鬆直接送到府上的,必須有基本的個人資料還有銀行帳戶,同時還要先繳交15%的稅金(這是中華民國政府規定的,即使是在國外贏得的任何彩金也一樣),所以假設是中了80萬彩金,就要先繳交12萬的稅金;

當然,因為彩金要從香港匯給你之前,你必須先繳交12萬的稅金,因為是跨國關係,稅率不同,雙方又沒有正式邦交的情況下,主辦單位不能預扣百分比,所以你必須先繳交稅金,由台灣分公司代辦之後,取得台灣稅務機關的公文寄到香港審核後,才能將全額獎金匯給你-----------

如果,你本身開始起疑,或者你的家人親友不相信而力阻你「繳交稅金」,那麼就不會有後面的一連串「症候群」發生,但是,詐騙集團又豈是省油的燈?當然會一直鼓起如簧之舌,千方百計的讓你相信自己真的中獎了;

想想偷雞也總要蝕把米,大部分人抱著「賭一把」的心理,就先預繳了這筆稅金,等著獎金匯進來,心裡盤算盤算扣掉稅金,還有六十八萬,買輛國產新車還有剩,甚至還能買顆小鑽戒送給老婆,哈!太棒了!

但是,12萬稅金也依對方指定的帳戶匯去了,可,也許是左等右等,不見下文,也許是就正在著急時,對方主動來電了;哇!大大的恭喜,你真的是上一輩子肯定是燒了太多好香,真沒見過像的這麼超級幸運兒----

怎麼了?

恭喜恭喜!你原來那筆獎金因為跨國作業逾時沒有及時領取,所以,主辦單位將你和其他極少數幾位不同金額中獎者的那筆獎金援例作賽馬年度大賽的下注金,結果真的是天知道,您竟然是唯一連環中獎的得主,目前已經累積到7倍,就是折合台幣560萬了!

然後,你當然難免有些懷疑的,沒關係,詐騙集團都有完整的各種「教戰手冊」的,所以一定又會出現很多的有力人士,甚至很多精美的書面得獎證明寄給你,讓你充分相信你真的是走了狗屎運,想不相信都不行;

560萬哩!可以買房子啦!

同樣的,因為要先繳交稅金以及一些手續費,所以,你當然要先預繳7、80萬才能完全領回這560萬----------

於是,這時心理就開始七上八下的在拉扯了;騙人的吧?那有這麼好康的事會落在我頭上?比雷打到的機率還小呢?

難說哦;機率再怎麼小,這世界上還是常常有被雷打到的啊?而且看看台灣的各種樂透彩,不也每星期都加減有人中獎,甚至一人獨得好幾億哩;

???

其實最重要的關鍵來了,之前都已經匯出12萬給人家了,如果現在這筆7、80萬捨不得,那豈不是前功盡棄,連那12萬也會被沒收,平白賠上十幾萬?

於是,所謂的『斯德哥爾摩症候群第二型』在這時正式開始發酵,當事人的心裡幾經轉折煎熬之後,終於選擇相信對方,而且是寧可相信對方,願意咬牙再賭一把!

然後許許多多人正是在這種心理作用下,最後被這樣一次又一次連環騙,總共匯出了十幾次,總金額累積幾百萬甚至上千萬的「冤枉錢」,真是讓目前腦袋還清楚的人怎麼也想不通「天下怎麼會有這麼笨的人」???

但是,真的沒有這麼笨的人,其實受騙上當的人跟你跟我一樣正常,只是一旦引發『斯德哥爾摩症候群』第二型時,就會變得非常反常,思想行為完全不合常理;
而且每被騙一次匯出一筆錢,隨著金額的增加,對騙徒的信心就會病態的增強幾分,最後甚至到了有如鬼迷心竅,連家人親友發現異狀,強力勸阻也沒用,甚至連警察加入勸阻也無法讓他回心轉意,更甚而對警察破口大罵,認為警察是在妨害自由----

為什麼?被下藥了嗎?被施以邪術了嗎?

都不是!真正的關鍵正是『斯德哥爾摩症候群第二型』的重點心理;當事人根本不願也不敢相信自己受騙了!尤其當錢匯出次數越多,金額越大,他越是不敢面對事實真相,反而「選擇性的忽略各種警訊」,刻意避開疑點,越是自我催眠相信自己沒這麼倒霉,自己沒這麼笨,甚至心中略有警惕時,也趕緊揮開,試圖一直加碼下注,希望有奇蹟出現,最後終於贏到幾千萬甚至上億彩金時就可以揚眉吐氣的向家人和親朋好友炫燿:看吧!我才不笨呢!等久就是我的!你們當初不相信我,認為我很笨,才會上當受騙,看看!現在這麼一大筆鈔票擺在眼前?怎樣!羨慕吧?

這;就是『斯德哥爾摩症候群第二型』的心態;他們會越來越相信騙徒,最後嚴重到偏執成癮,真的是九條牛都拉不回來;

問題重點也像賭博輸了一筆心痛的數目,然後拼命想撈本,拼命要和賭場的機率作對,和自己的運氣作對,甚至在一般地下賭場,根本是在跟老千作對,結果越是不信邪,不肯願賭服輸,趁早收手,結局就是傾家蕩產!

在宗教或者命理、通靈的騙局中,也有很多這種『斯德哥爾摩症候群第二型』的狀態存在,被騙上當,破財不消災,失身沒改運都還不算嚴重,最嚴重的有兩種:第一是幫別人數大筆鈔票還強迫自己相信對方是「真正高人」,真是死也不願相信更不敢承認自己上當受騙,反而變本加厲的宣揚高人的本事(其實是在強行在催眠麻醉與欺騙自己)。第二種是終於醒悟自己被騙,不論是被騙財騙色,因為害怕對方可能有邪術,或者自己已經對神明起誓「不能懷疑背叛」,所以只能吃悶虧也不敢張揚或者設法討回公道。

這個部份的細節,下篇再探討,待續

--------------------------------------

參考資料:

斯德哥爾摩症候群的由來

1973 年8月23日,兩名有前科的罪犯 Jan Erik Olsson與Clark  Olofsson,在意圖搶劫瑞典斯德哥爾摩內最大的一家銀行失敗後,挾持了四位銀行職員,在警方與歹徒僵持了130個小時之後,因歹徒放棄而結束。然而這起事件發生後幾個月,這四名遭受挾持的銀   行職員,仍然對綁架他們的人顯露出憐憫的情感。本案因歹徒放棄而結束,然而所有的被害者在事後都表明並不痛恨歹徒,並表達他們對歹徒非但沒有傷害他們卻對  他們多所照顧的感激,並對員警採取敵對的態度,事後,更有進者,被綁架的人質中有一名女職員克麗斯蕬汀  (Christian)竟然愛上歐陸森並與他訂婚(Hubbard, 1986; McMains & Mullins, 1996)。

這兩名搶匪劫持人質達六天之久,在這期間他們威脅受俘者的性命,但有時也表現出仁慈的一面。在出人意表的心理錯綜轉變下,這四名人質抗拒政府最終營救他們的努力。研究者發現  到這種症候群的例子見諸於各種不同的經驗中,從集中營的囚犯、戰俘、受虐婦女與亂倫的受害者,都可能發生斯德哥爾摩症候群經驗。

甚麼樣的人會產生斯德哥爾摩症候群

斯德哥爾摩症候群(Stockholm  syndrome),又稱為人質情結,是指犯罪的被害者對於犯罪者產生情感,甚至反過來幫助犯罪者的一種情結。據心理學者的研究,情感上會依賴他人且容易  受感動的人,若遇到類似的狀況,很容易產生斯德哥爾摩症候群。 斯德哥爾摩症候群,通常有下列幾項特徵:

人質必須有真正感到綁匪(加害者)威脅到自己的存活。

在遭挾持過程中,人質必須體會出綁匪(加害者)可能略施小惠的舉動。

除了綁匪的單一看法之外,人質必須與所有其他觀點隔離(通常得不到外界的訊息)。

人質必須相信,要脫逃是不可能的。

而通常斯德哥爾摩症候群會經歷以下四大歷程:

恐懼:因為突如其來的脅迫與威嚇導致現況改變。

害怕:籠罩在不安的環境中,身心皆受威脅。

同情:和挾持者長期相處體認到對方不得已行為,且並未受到『直接』傷害。

幫助:給予挾持者無形幫助如配合,不逃脫,安撫等;或有形幫助如協助逃脫,向法官說情,一起逃亡等。

您需要登錄後才可以回帖 登錄 | 立即註冊

本版積分規則

快速回復 返回頂部 返回列表