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The man mediated under the Bodhi tree 2,600 years ago 二千六百年前的那棵菩提樹

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發表於 2018-10-20 12:36:22 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
本帖最後由 赫生童子 於 2018-10-20 20:06 編輯

The man mediated under the Bodhi tree 2,600 years ago

Author :Chang Kai-Chi

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Two thousand six hundred years ago, under a bodhi tree in the "Bodhgaya" of India today, there was a squat-like practitioner who gave up the original hunger and suffering and accepted a deer milk cereal from a shepherdess. Then, sitting cross-legged, set for seven days and seven nights, and finally in the early morning with a bright morning star, he opened his eyes, returned to normal state, slowly stood up, and went to the fellows who practiced with him. Among the five companions, he claimed that himself had " get enlightened " and fully understood the whole truth of the universe.

This person was "Jorda Mo. Siddhartha", the Buddhist leader who was later called "Sakyamuni"!

Has he realized the ultimate truth of the universe?

There is a lot of evidence that his cognition is wrong, or that he still follows the old concepst of obsolescence; he had not completely excluded the basic teachings of Hinduism and the embarrassment of the mainstream philosophical "pessimism" of the six Indian factions.

What is the truth? Don't speculate, or deliberately make up the lie. From all his narratives about self-proclaimed enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, we can clearly see the clues are as follows,

At that time, "Jordama Siddhartha" was in a state of extreme hunger for long time (in various Buddhist classics or legends, he consistently described him suffered  a long period of hunger.  Even There was an exaggerated statue that he was starving and the back touched his chest. But who in the world can survive with only one grain of wheat or one sesame per day? In order to demonstrate his hard-working spirit of perseverance and the will-power with the disciples’ mythological exaggerations-- Sakyamuni’s long-term hunger may be real with a bowl of "Deer milk cereal" was consumed daily. Then he began to mediated for seven days and nights. The body state should be extremely malnourished and weak, this physiological state will inevitably affect the psychological state, and even produces serious hallucinations .

Of course, some people will refute that there were many malnourished refugees and hungry people in the world since ancient times. Why was it that only "Jorda Mosada" can be fully realized?

The answer is also very simple, because almost all refugees and hungry people, no one would bear in mind about the problems of the universe and life, or had complained about the world, want to know why their fate was so tragic? However, they were just a little thought that flashes past, not as painstakingly as "Jodhamo Siddhartha"; therefore, the illusion caused by extreme hunger and malnutrition was not related to the big question of the life of the universe. , but only limited to personal encounters or illusions about food.

So we  would suspect that the so-called "the ultimate truth of the universe" of "Jorda Mossardo" is very likely to be a personal illusion caused by severe malnutrition and extreme hunger. Modern nutrition also proves that excessive hunger does cause hallucinations, especially when the liver glycogen and vitamin B group are extremely deficient, and it is more likely to cause hallucinations.

Then he was in a state of "self-enlightenment", and this was announced to the original five fellow initiates, and they were not allowed to call his real name since; this unaccompanied, self-proclaimed king; dare to declare that he, from the ancient times to the present, there was only one person who has "the only truth in the universe". It is the only one who has "the Sakyamuni". It is really unprecedented. Even today, when technology is so developed, we not only dare not be so self-respecting but because we understand the space of the universe.  The more we feel the smallness of human beings, the more humble we are facing the whole universe. And no one dares to claim that he has "understood the ultimate truth of the universe."

It should be arguable; the older the ancients, the more they know that they know more.  But in fact, they actually know less than the modern people.  Just like "Zhuangzi, Autumn water section" ( See the appendix), like River God saying, I don’t know that the sea is big, but I always think I know enough, even I feel to know it all. At the same time, it turns out that Sakyamuni’s life-long activities were about a tiny glimpse in northeastern India. Because of the inconvenience of transportation and roads at the time, he not only did not travel all over India, he never even saw the sea. The largest water I have ever seen is probably only one of the River Gods.

The "Zhuangzi, Autumn water section" is also answering many people's rebuttals--the simple imagination of the individual cannot be compared with the ultimate truth, just like "river god" did not see the "North Sea" before he saw it. The smugness of the singer, and how is he self-defeating when he sees the sea? It made him realize that purely personal imagination is definitely not enough to know the wider world. Sakyamuni’s "thinking without learning" and "thinking without reflecting", of course, it is impossible to know all India, the whole world, the whole universe!

So when we look back at the historical background of 2,600 years ago, and the process of "Sakyamuni" claiming to be a Buddha; we can be very sure that he is simply feeling good about himself, and he is very self-proud he realized the ultimate truth of the universe. However, of course it is not a fact. If it is not deliberately bragging, it is the illusion of severe malnutrition related enlightenment.

The appendix "Zhuangzi. Autumn's Water Section" vernacular translation": "In the Autumn, the mountain torrents flowed in time and the floods of many huge rivers flowed into the Yellow River. The rivers were wide and rough, and the cattle and horses between the two banks and the water sands could not be distinguished. Then the river god is happy and self-satisfied, thinking that all the beautiful things in the world are gathered here. The river god went to the east along the water, came to the north sea, looked at the east side, could not see the end of the sea. So the river god changed the face of the previous self-satisfaction, facing the sea god and sighed and said: "The saying goes, "I heard hundreds of reasons, I think no one in the world can match myself." It’s people like me. And I’ve heard that Confucius knows too little, and Saint’s high morality is not worthy of attention. I can’t believe it at first. Now I’ve seen you so vast and broad. There is no end to it. If I come to your door, it will be dangerous. I will always be ridiculed by the highly cultivated people."  

sea god said: "The frogs in the well can't talk to them about the sea because they are restricted by the living space. The summer worms can't talk about freezing with them because they are limited by the time of life. They talk about the avenue because of the shackles of education. Now that you come out from the bank of the river and see the sea, you will know your embarrassment, and you will be able to participate in talking about the avenue. There is nothing bigger than the sea in the waters of the world. The river flows to the sea, I don’t know when it will stop, but the sea will never overflow. The tail of the sea leaks the sea, I don’t know when it will stop and the sea has never been reduced; no matter whether it changes in spring or autumn, No water sputum or drought will be conscious.
 樓主| 發表於 2018-10-20 12:38:03 | 顯示全部樓層
二千六百年前的那棵菩提樹

作者:張開基

翻譯員:北展昭
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二千六百年前,在現今印度「菩提迦耶」的一棵菩提樹下,有一位鳩形鵠面的修行者,放棄了原本的忍饑苦修,接受一位牧羊女奉獻的「鹿乳糜」,然後盤腿而坐,入定了七天七夜,最後在一個有明亮晨星照燿的清晨,他終於睜開了眼睛,回復到正常狀態,緩緩地站起身子,走向原本與他一起同修的五位同伴間,宣稱自己已經「得道成佛」,並且完全徹悟了宇宙天地間全部的道理。

這個人就是「喬達摩.悉達多」,也就是後來被尊稱為「釋迦牟尼」的佛教教主!

他確實如他自己所言;已經徹悟宇宙的終極真理了嗎?

當然沒有,諸多證據證明他的認知是錯誤的,或者依舊是因循於舊時落伍觀念的;並沒有完全跳脫印度教的基本教義以及印度六派主流哲學「悲觀主義」的窠臼。

事實真相是什麼?

不用揣測,或者蓄意栽贓污衊;因為從所有有關他在菩提樹下自稱證悟得道的經過敘述中,我們就能清楚的看出明確的端倪;

當時的「喬達摩.悉達多」,因為長期處於極度饑餓狀態(在各種佛教的經典或傳說中,都口徑一致的描述他在長期忍饑苦修期間僅僅日食一麥一麻;甚至還有他餓到前胸貼後背的誇張雕像,可謂不成人形,但是,這世界上有誰能長期一天只吃一粒麥子或一粒芝麻而能存活的?為了彰顯他堅苦卓絕的苦修精神和過人的意志力,後世那些狗腿歌德派的佛弟子未免也太胡謅了,這是神話式的誇大其詞),因此,釋迦牟尼長期處於饑餓或許是實,而只食用了一碗「鹿乳糜」(鹿奶調和的稀飯)之後又開始長達七天七夜的入定苦思窮參,身體狀態應該還是是極度營養不良,非常衰弱的,這種生理狀態必然也會影響心理狀態,甚至會產生嚴重幻覺的。

當然有人會反駁說:世界上自古就有許多營養不良的難民、饑民,為什麼獨獨只有「喬達摩.悉達多」可以徹悟呢?

答案也很簡單,因為幾乎所有難民和饑民,沒有誰還有心思一直在苦思窮參宇宙和生命的問題,或者也曾怨天尤人,想要知道自己的命運為什麼這麼悲慘?但是,都只是一個一閃而過的小小念頭而已,而不像「喬達摩.悉達多」一樣苦思窮參下去;因此因為極度饑餓和營養不良引發的幻覺不是和宇宙生命的大哉問有關,而只是局限在個人的際遇或者對食物的幻覺而已。

因而,我們有非常充分的理由可以懷疑「喬達摩.悉達多」的所謂「徹悟宇宙終極真理」非常有可能只是嚴重營養不良和極度饑餓時期引發的個人幻覺而已。近代營養學也證明過度饑餓確實會引發幻覺的,尤其是極度缺乏肝醣類、維他命B群時,更容易引發幻覺。

然後,他當然是在「自我感覺良好」的狀態下,這樣的向原本的五位同修伙伴宣佈,並且不許他們再直呼他的本名;這種無人加冕,自封為王;敢於宣稱自己已經「徹悟宇宙終極真理」的,從古至今也就絕無僅有的只出了「釋迦牟尼」這唯一的一人而已,真的是前無古人,後無來者。即使直到科技如此發達的今天,我們不但不敢如此妄自尊大,反而因為對於宇宙太空的更深入了解,越感覺到人類的渺小,越發覺得人類所知曉的範疇和整個宇宙相比,根本比滄海一粟還要更少,也就更沒有人敢宣稱自己已經「徹悟宇宙終極真理」了。

應該可以說;越是時代久遠的古人,越是自認知道的比較多,但是,事實上他們比起現代人,其實真正能夠知曉的少得太多太多,就像「莊子.秋水篇」(請參見附錄)中所說的河伯一樣,不見滄海不知天下之大,而總是自以為自己知道的已經夠多,甚至已經全部知曉了。同時事實證明,釋迦牟尼終其一生的活動範圍大約都在印度東北部極小的一隅,因為受限於當時交通工具和道路的不便,他不但沒有走遍全印度,甚至從來沒有見過大海,見過最大的水大概也只有恆河的其中一段;而這段大約是在現今「瓦拉納西」的附近,這段的恆河,河面並不寬,搭小船不用十分鐘就能抵達對岸,所以釋迦牟尼的眼界,別說與「北海若」相比,連河伯都不如。

而「莊子.秋水篇」正也回答了許多人的反駁;個人單純的想像是無法和事實真相相較或等同的,就如同「河伯」沒有親眼見識「北海」之大以前,他是如何的躊躇滿志,而當他見到了大海之後又是如何的自慚形穢?使他發覺單純個人的想像是絕對不足以知曉更廣大的世界的。釋迦牟尼的「思而不學」、「思而不察」,當然不可能知曉全印度、全世界、全宇宙!

所以當我們去回顧二千六百年前的歷史背景,以及「釋迦牟尼」自稱得道成佛的過程;我們可以非常肯定的認定他單純只是自我感覺良好,非常妄自尊大的以為自己已經完全「徹悟宇宙終極真理」了;然而,那當然不是事實,如果不是蓄意吹牛誇大,那麼就是嚴重營養不良產生的幻覺所致。

附錄「莊子.秋水篇白話譯文」:秋天裡山洪按照時令洶湧而至,眾多大川的水流匯入黃河,河面寬闊波濤洶湧,兩岸和水中沙洲之間連牛馬都不能分辨。於是河神欣然自喜,認為天下一切美好的東西全都聚集在自己這裡。河神順著水流向東而去,來到北海邊,面朝東邊一望,看不見大海的盡頭。於是河神方才改變先前洋洋自得的面孔,面對著海神仰首慨歎道:「俗語有這樣的說法,『聽到了上百條道理,便認為天下再沒有誰能比得上自己』的,說的就是我這樣的人了。而且我還曾聽說過孔丘懂得的東西太少、伯夷的高義不值得看重的話語,開始我不敢相信;如今我親眼看到了你是這樣的浩淼博大、無邊無際,我要不是因為來到你的門前,真可就危險了,我必定會永遠受到修養極高的人的恥笑。」

海神說:「井裡的青蛙,不可能跟它們談論大海,是因為受到生活空間的限制;夏天的蟲子,不可能跟它們談論冰凍,是因為受到生活時間的限制;鄉曲之土,不可能跟他們談論大道,是因為教養的束縛。如今你從河岸邊出來,看到了大海,方才知道自己的鄙陋,你將可以參與談論大道了。天下的水面,沒有什麼比海更大的,千萬條河川流歸大海,不知道什麼時候才會停歇而大海卻從不會滿溢;海底的尾閭洩漏海水,不知道什麼時候才會停止而海水卻從不曾減少;無論春天還是秋天不見有變化,無論水澇還是乾旱不會有知覺。這說明大海遠遠超過了江河的水流,不能夠用數量來計算。可是我從不曾因此而自滿,自認為從天地那裡承受到形體並且從陰和陽那裡稟承到元氣,我存在於天地之間,就好像一小塊石子、一小塊木屑存在於大山之中。我正以為自身的存在實在渺小,又哪裡會自以為滿足而自負呢?想一想,四海存在於天地之間,不就像小小的石間孔隙存在於大澤之中嗎?再想一想,中原大地存在於四海之內,不就像細碎和米粒存在於大糧倉裡嗎?號稱事物的數字叫做萬,人類只是萬物中的一種;人們聚集於九州,糧食在這裡生長,舟車在這裡通行,而每個人只是眾多人群中的一員;一個人他比起萬物,不就像是毫毛之末存在於整個馬體嗎?五帝所續連的,三王所爭奪的,仁人所憂患的,賢才所操勞的,全在於這毫末般的天下呢!伯夷辭讓它而博取名聲,孔丘談論它而顯示淵博,這大概就是他們的自滿與自傲;不就像你先前在河水暴漲時的洋洋自得嗎?」』

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