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Who has seen God? 誰見過神了?

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發表於 2018-10-10 12:50:35 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
Who has seen God?

Author :Chang Kai-Chi

In the Neolithic Age, mankind has had an "animated spirit" and an archetype religion. It was not until Egypt, about 6,000 years ago, that there was a formal religious belief.

Later, with different regions, nationalities, customs-- religious beliefs were formed in various civilizations later, and various gods appeared, especially the "main god".

Let us first look at the history of different religions and the differences about gods:

Egypt: About 6,000 years of history

Religion: Polytheism

Late Lord God: Amonra

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Su Mei: About 6,000 years of history

Religion: Polytheism

Lord God: Annu

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Assyria: about 5,500 years of history

Religion: Polytheism

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Babylon: about 5200 years of history

Lord God: Ashur

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India: about 5,500 years of history

Late Lord God: Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma

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Judaism: about 4,000 years of history (from Abraham)

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Greece: about 3,000 years of history

Religion: Polytheism

Lord God: Zeus

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Buddhism: about 2,500 years of history

Religion: Atheism

Note: A lot of Bodhisattvas, Arhats were accommodated in the later period.

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Catholic, Christian, Orthodox: about 2000-1500 years of history

Lord God: God, God

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Taoism: about 2000 years of history

Religion: Polytheism

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Islam: about 1300 years of history

Lord God: Allah

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Note 1. Other believers with less or emerging religions are excluded in the discussion.

Now let us explore within the history of human civilization-- there have been so many different religions in the past 6,000 years, some of which have perished, and some continue to be circulated;

Those religions that have perished, including the gods who disappeared at the same time-- those gods who had been worshipped and prayed by all, have gone there? Except for historians and religious scholars, seems no one cares at all. So that means they are totally forgotten in existing world.

Then, regardless of the ancient gods that have perished and the religions that continue to be circulated, do those famous gods really exist?

Someone may claim himself dream or personally “see” about these gods, as well as legendary myths, etc., But there is no evidence or circumstantial evidence to prove it.

In the end, either historically or contemporarily, who actually saw "God"?

The answer is very clear: No!

So there is not majority people did see "God" at the same time. And it is strange why "God" never appeared publicly if god is omnipotent?

If "God" is almighty, disdain to deal with such small things as human beings, and don't care what these poor and small things are thinking about? So God does not want to deal with humans?  

Ironically, all "Gods" expect poor little mankind must to believe in him.  And some believers even address  "the one who does not believe in will be destroyed" or "Go to hell"-----

Wow! This is incredible? Since it addresses human beings believe in "the existence of Oneself" But on the other side God never showed up-- it is very difficult to understand.

Most of the "Gods" claim to have created human beings themselves and they are omniscient.  So it could get concluded the whole universe and the environment existence depends on the flesh sensing.  To be seen, heard, or even touched, so could indeed believers will only be human beings.

Therefore, in order for human beings to believe in their existence, the easiest way is the omnipotent "God" occasionally shows miracles, so that "preaching" could get saved with more efficient way.

However, the Almighty God does not do this. He wants human being to believe in His existence, to obey His commandments, but to refuse to openly appear and convince all mankind; then no one has ever seen "God."

Plus there exist different kinds of gods, or "the Gods" who either came from the same source or relevant religions (could work on the human with various rewards and punishments). It created different believers would attack each other because they believed in it as "the only true God", and the others are not-- via adoption of knife, cannons, rockets, and even nuclear weapons, believers try to convince each other.

Since God knows everything and is omnipotent—why not simply as "presence then could eliminate the religion war”? Then all disputes could naturally be eliminated?

Is it that God can't do it at the same time and appear at the same time all over the world? How can it be claimed to be "ubiquitous"?

This can't be claimed as "all-powerful."

Of course, if God does not even know this way, then it is not "omniscient"!

Human beings began to have religious beliefs. I believe that there were various "sacred gods", and no one had ever seen God.

Then, all the legends, myths, and classics related to "God", the slogans, sermons, and even all kinds of ridiculous lies and scams that are preached by the preachers are obviously from the personal transmitting. Nothing is "God" speaks openly to mankind.

Since all are people, not what God said, then where is "God"? What are you doing? Why god is not willing to show up?

It is obvious God can't show up-- whether it is ancient, modern or future because "God" does not exist at all.  And could conclude God was made up by people.

Of course, the most valuable right of mankind is "freedom" including the beliefs. Therefore, believing or not believing that "God" is also free and no one can interfere or force it.

From historical evidence and speculation; I personally do not believe in the existence of "God"!

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Note: The above is just a brief introduction to the description; please refer to the second part for details.



 樓主| 發表於 2018-10-10 12:53:13 | 顯示全部樓層
Who has seen God? Reference materials:

Egypt has a long history and is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. A unified slavery state emerged in 3100 BC.

There were thousands of gods in ancient Egypt that have been verified so far. This multi-god worship originated from the totem worship of the primitive society. In the small countries before the reunification of Egypt, people worshiped their different gods. As the United States reunified the entire territory of Egypt, Pharaoh began to promote the gods of their respective origins, making them called the Lord God, worshipped by all Egypt. In the ancient kingdom, the main god was the eagle god Horus, and later changed to the sun god pull. In the middle kingdom period, the main worship was Amon. In the new kingdom period, Lamon and Amon were combined to form the main god Amonla. While the nation is united to worship the Lord God, all places (Nome, the equivalent of the province) still worship the gods from the original deity.

About 90% of the population in Egypt believes in Sunni Islam, and about 10% of the population believes in Christian sects such as the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Coptic Catholic Church, and the Greek Orthodox Church.

The main god of Su Mei was the god Annu, and Annu’s most important companions are Enki in the south, Enlier in the north, and Ishtar, the god of Venus. The sun god called Utu, the moon god called Inana, the mother god called Namu, in addition to hundreds of small gods. Every god was connected to a city. The importance of these gods also influenced with the political ups and downs of these cities. From their legend descriptions--People are made of clay, and their purpose was to serve God. If God was angry, they use earthquakes or storms to punish people. Su Mei people believed that people can only survive under God's mercy.

Each city of Sumei had its own unique gods and theology, and changes in people's beliefs over God led to changes in the depiction of God. Su Mei dis not have a collective religion. The Sumei religion had many gods and a main One. The Sumerian faith was the earliest recorded faith, and it was the source of later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. Su Mei believed that the ground was a flat plate and the sky was a cover. They believed that after death they would become ghosts and wandering in the shadows forever. Their beliefs had also affected other people in the world. Whitehead once said: "We had inherited morality and religion from the Semitic people in the two rivers..."

Assyria formed a country centered on Assyria and began the early Assyrian period (about 3,000 BC to the mid-2000s)

The rituals and rituals with magical nature were of great significance in Assyrian religion. Similar to the Greek gods, the nature of the Assyrian gods was understood to be irritating, vanity, and often in the heart, like tribute and sacrifice. The power of the gods was only as a protector of the commune or the city. The Assyrian Empire tried to regard Ascher as the supreme god, but all Assyrians, including Ashur, were opposed. In addition to the gods, the Assyrians had countless superstitions, thousands of life taboos, and worship of dozens of evil spirits and elves.

Sumerian religion was the earliest model of Mesopotamian religion. Its pedigrees, worship rituals and classic literature were inherited by the Akhadian Babylonian religion after the 18th century BC. It was followed by the Assyrians in the 12th century BC. There were relics of animal worship, and the gods gradually became anthropomorphic, mostly the image of half-beast and half-human. In the 20th century around the BC, religious thought was formed. The gods developed into various types: high gods with omnipotent and unreachable--- such as the god of heaven, Annu, the god of the earth, the water god, Oia, and the gods with mystical power in the natural phenomenon, such as Yueshen Xin , the sun god Xia Marsh, the god of agriculture and spring Dumuz. In the South, important gods were mostly city gods; in the North, they were natural gods active in the universe.

2234 BC can be used as the age of Babylon

The myths and legends of Babylon were mainly found in the Babylonian Epic. The Babylonians believed that the gods were quiet and peaceful, and they lived in the temple in an orderly manner. They promoted the guardian of Babylon, Marduk, to the head of the gods. The militant Assyrians believed that the gods were capricious and intimidating. The Lord God was the god of war, Ashur. In the heyday of the Assyrian Empire (the first eight centuries), it replaced Marduk’s status and was honored as creation. The world and the god of mankind. The Mesopotamian religion believed that God was super-existing and intrinsic. The gods in the temple were greeted by the priest's servants and the loyalty of the people, as well as the prayers of the people, reflecting their style in heaven. There were full-time priests and grand temples. The main content of worship was the sacrifice of food and clothes; the praise song was chant by the court musician in the name of the god; the prayer is served by the priest. Religious activities were not limited to worship rituals, but also included many exorcism spells and signs, divination, and so on. For the end of the soul, there was a pessimistic attitude. I believe that there is no trial after death, and there is no heaven to hope. The soul will always live in the underworld. Mesopotamian religions and myths have a significant impact on the Bible, especially the Old Testament.

The Assyrians today mainly believe in the Christian Assyrian Church, the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Syrian Orthodox Church.

India has existed in the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age. Indian civilization is one of the earliest ancient civilizations in the world. At the latest, in the 2500 BC, the Indus Valley had civilizations created by ancient Indians. The place where the civilization was first discovered was located in the current Khalaba and Pakistan. Henzo Darrow, so this civilization is also known as the Indus River civilization or the Xalapa civilization. However, the civilization suddenly declined in 2000 BC, and the cause of the decline was inconsistent in the archaeological community. Modern genetic studies have shown that the genetic differences between Indians was small, probably because of the large-scale natural disasters in ancient times that caused a significant reduction in population.

Around 1500 BC, the Aryans from northwestern India invaded the Indus Valley in northwestern India and the Ganges River in the north, and combined with locals to create a classic Vedic culture. This civilization was a few centuries later than the Indus civilization in the Indus Valley, so it is generally called the Ganges civilization.

India is also a country with a very strong religious color. It is the birthplace of many religions. It can find almost all the religions in the world in India. It is called the "religious museum."

About 80.5% of the population in India believes in Hinduism, and other major religious groups include Islam (15%), Sikhism (1.9%), Jainism, and the United Kingdom because of the introduction of early Syrian Christianity and modernity. Colonial rule, Christianity (2.3%) prevailed [83]. Buddhism originated in India and now has a relatively small influence in India, accounting for 5% of the total population.

Jewish worship is the only true God (one god belief, Hebrew: יהוה), a national religion within the Hebrews. Judaism believes that Talmud is second only to the Hebrew Bible. When Alexander the Great conquered the Hebrew Jewish settlement, the Hebrews were also renamed the Jews and scattered throughout the Greek Empire. In the 3rd century BC, the Hellenistic Egyptian Ptolemy lord Ptolemy II The world convened more than 70 Jews who understand Greek and concentrated on the Jewish literature and translated it into Greek, the part of the Old Testament in the Greek Bible currently used by Christianity, the so-called seventy-seven translation. Later, the Jewish state was completely destroyed by the Roman Empire. The Jewish temple in Jerusalem was demolished, leaving only a broken Western Wall (commonly known as the Wailing Wall). The Jews were scattered throughout Europe and Asia.

Historically, Jews had faced many devastating disasters and persecutions. Since the Jews have been scattered all over the world for more than two thousand years, language and writing have been divided, and only a single religion has maintained its single nationality. In the recent years, Catholic Pope John Paul II has admitted to fighting against Jews, causing a history of suffering.

Judaism (Hebrew: יהדות Yahadut), which was once known as the cultivating [a] or a philosophical teaching, was born in the nomadic Hebrews of the Western zeasia region, Hebrew Human religion, values and lifestyle. Judaism is a monotheistic religion. Its main classics are Tanakh (Tiberium, Christian and Catholic called the Old Testament), including Torah (the Torah), and the oral law (Missy). Talmud, which is a narrative of the law, and a biblical commentary (Midrash). For Jews who believe in Judaism, Judaism is a covenant relationship between God and Israel.


 樓主| 發表於 2018-10-10 12:54:42 | 顯示全部樓層
Believe that Jehovah is the true God of creation and unity. Respect the only God who transcends everything: "Ay Israel, listen. The Lord our God is the one and only Lord."

The Jews expected the Messiah to reward individuals and the community, and hoped that his arrival would touch and influence individual Jews and the entire community and all mankind. This concept first appeared in the death of King Solomon in 931 BC. After the Jews experienced national division and demise, all Jews hoped that one day they would be able to restore the glory of the past under the leadership of King Solomon, and that it would be a peaceful life without hunger, war, disease and suffering. This is also the main reason why the Jews could not accept Jesus as the Messiah. Because the peace and prosperity of the birth of Christ did not come, the Jews still lived for thousands of years. But many Christians like to emphasize that the Jews are unwilling to accept Jesus as the Messiah because Jesus was born poor and died like ordinary people. He did not like the Jewish identity to conclude that Christ is not the Messiah.

The birth of a new Greek civilization in 800 BC, the emergence of Greek works such as Homer's epic. At that time, the Greek city-state established its own colony on the Mediterranean coast, successfully resisting the invasion of the Persian Empire and developing a splendid Greek culture.

The ancient Greek multi-god beliefs developed between the eight BC and the fifth and sixth centuries. According to the study [source request] Gushi religion was not a separate system, but the most important is the inheritance of the religious beliefs of the ancient Indo-European people. Therefore, the origin of ancient Greek religion was earlier than the age of Homer's epic, the religious content of the ancient Greeks. It wais quite rich and complicated, because He was a primitive natural god worship [1], and there were many gods, big and small, and some of them had overlapping positions. Ancient Greek religion was actually an original belief of the origin of comprehensive and pluralistic, many ancient Greeks recognized and believed to be the twelve

main (Olympus gods) male goddess and goddess (Zeus, Poseidon, He La, Demeter, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes, and or Hestia or Di Neissos).

Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Qiao Momo at the age of 35 in ancient India (now in Nepal). There w3re two statements about the birth of Prince Siddhartha. There were two different kinds of time for Buddhism to start. One is considered to be in the West. In May 543, the full moon day, the other was considered to be in the first 589 years or 588 years ago. At that time, Siddhartha enlightened under Biluoshu (the Buddhist believer called the Bodhi tree) and later traveled to the banks of the Ganges to teach people. After the five ministers who followed him  andaccepted the teachings of Siddhartha, they became the monks, the first sangha [13]. People of all various identities came to listen to his speech and became his disciples. In the following decades, he marched around and enrolled many disciples, and the influence of Buddhism gradually expanded. After his 80-year-old death (Buddhism called Nirvana), he was honored as Sakyamuni Buddha.

Catholic (Latin: Catholicismus; English: Catholicism), also known as the Catholic Church, is a series of Christian theological beliefs, philosophical theories, ritual traditions, ethics, and spiritual will developed from the Roman Catholic Church (Catholic Church). , the largest denomination of Christianity. Its Latin text means "universal." Another often-used name is the “Dagong Church”, which is usually used to summarize the universal characteristics of the Christian Church to distinguish between the narrow and communist churches, the Catholic Church [1]. In most cases, Catholicism is the name of the Catholic Church.

Christianity is a monotheistic religion that believes in Jesus Christ as God and the Savior. Originating in the Palestinian region of West Asia, the Bible is the highest classic, believers are called Christians, and Christian groups are called churches or Christian churches. Since some of the teachings originated from Judaism, they are considered to be one of Abraham's teachings.

Today, they are also regarded as the world's three major religions together with Islam and Buddhism.  It was divided into three major sects: Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant. However, due to historical development, the term "Christianity" in Chinese refers to Protestantism, and Christianity as a whole is called "Christian Religion."

The core of Christian faith is to create the world by the one God who believes in the Trinity (Chinese is also translated as God or God), and to create people according to God's own image, and to manage the world by humans [1]. Later, people sinned and brought Death; the Father sent his son Jesus to the world, at the end of his 33rd year, he was crucified for the sins of the world, raised from the dead three days later, and then ascended to heaven, and gave the Holy Spirit and believers The same; his death paid the ransom of sin, so that all who believe in him are saved and have eternal life in God.

In 1054, Christianity split into a Catholic (referred to as Catholic in China) and Orthodox (called Orthodox in China). The Catholic Church is centered on the Holy See, and its teaching power is mainly in the Pope and the Grand Council. The Orthodox Church is centered on Constantinople and the highest power belongs to the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Taoism

At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zhang Daoling called Taishang Laojun (Laozi) in the southwestern sect, "giving three days of Fa-rectification and life as the celestial division", and as if it was made into twenty-five verses, thus creating a positive one (commonly known as Tian Shidao, history called Wu Dou Mi Road). In the Central Plains, Zhangjiao also founded Taiping Road, claiming that "the sky is dead, Huang Tian is standing", and organized the people to hold an uprising against the Eastern Han Dynasty. As a result of the emergence of Taiping and Taoping, Taoism began to become a sect with a strict ideology and organizational system. In this social context, the main founder of the Taoist scriptures, Zhang Daoling, integrated traditional ghosts and gods, fairy thoughts, yin and yang, and witchcraft, and gradually merged with the thoughts of the Huang Dynasty Taoist school in the Han Dynasty. Taoist sects are also at this time. Form and gradually mature into a religious form of Taoism.

Islam (al-Islam) is an Arabic transliteration. It was first raised in the Arabian Peninsula by the Mecca Muhammad in the 7th century. The original meaning is "obedience" and "peace". It is also translated as the two eyes of Iss, referring to the creation of the universe by obedience and faith. The only one who dominates Allah and his will is to seek peace and tranquility in the two worlds. Those who believe in Islam are collectively referred to as "Muslim" (meaning "submissive" is the same root as Islam "Islam").
 樓主| 發表於 2018-10-10 12:58:29 | 顯示全部樓層
誰見過神了?

作者:張開基

翻譯員:北展昭

人類在新石器時代已經有了「萬物有靈論」的泛靈信仰,也是雛型宗教。一直到大約6000年前的埃及,才有了正式的宗教信仰。

之後,隨著地域不同、民族性不同、風俗觀念不同,在後來的各種文明中又形成了不同的宗教信仰,也出現了各種不同的神祇,特別是「主神」也有所不同。

我們先看一下我整理的各種宗教的歷史、神祇的不同,按歷史年代的先後排列如下:

埃及:約6000年歷史
宗教信仰:多神教
晚期主神:阿蒙拉

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蘇美:約6000年歷史
宗教信仰:多神教
主神:安努
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亞述:約5500年歷史
宗教信仰:多神教
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巴比倫:5200年歷史
主神:阿舒爾
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印度:約5500年歷史
晚期主神:濕婆神、毗濕努神、梵天
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猶太教:4000年歷史(從「亞伯拉罕」算起)
主神:耶和華
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希臘:3000年歷史
宗教信仰:多神教
主神:宙斯
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佛教2500年歷史
宗教信仰:無神論
註:後期包容了許許多多的菩薩、阿羅漢
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天主教、基督教、東正教:2000--1500年歷史
主神:神、天主
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道教:2000年歷史
宗教信仰:多神教
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伊斯蘭教:1300年歷史
主神:安拉
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1.其他信徒較少或新興宗教,不列入探討。

 樓主| 發表於 2018-10-10 12:59:42 | 顯示全部樓層
現在,我們來探討一下;在人類文明史中,6000年來,出現了這麼多不同的宗教,有些已經滅亡了,有些還繼續在流傳;

那些已經滅亡的宗教,包括同時滅亡的神祇,那些曾經被虔誠供奉和眾人膜拜的神祇去了那裡?除了歷史學家、宗教學家,恐怕根本沒有人關心;那麼跟「灰飛煙滅」有什麼不同?

那麼,不論已經「灰飛煙滅」的古老神祇,以及目前仍然繼續流傳的宗教中,那些知名的主神,究竟真的存在嗎?

排除單一個人「自說自話」的宣稱、以及傳說神話和作夢、冥想(甚至「鬼幻症」)等等「說自己見過神」,卻沒有任何實證、旁證的說法。

究竟,在歷史上或現代社會中,有誰真正見過「神」了?

答案非常明確:沒有!

當然更沒有一大群人,或者在人潮洶湧的地方,集體同時見到「神」的。

那麼,很奇怪的是,許多宗教都宣稱「神是萬能的」,是無所不知,無所不能,無所不在的;既然如此,為什麼從古到今,「神」從來不公開現身呢?

如果「神」是至高無上,不屑和人類這種小東西打交道,也根本不在意這些可憐又渺小的小東西在想些什麼?做些什麼?又不喜歡這種小東西像螞蟻一樣在眼前爬來爬去挺煩人;所以不想和人類見面;如果真的如此,那也就罷了。

可是,偏偏所有的「神」都希望甚至嚴厲規定人類這種可憐的小東西一定要「相信神」,而且,有些還會強調甚至恐嚇「不信神的會被滅掉」或者「不信神的會下地獄」-----

哇!這可就不可思議了?

既然要人類相信「自己的存在」,偏偏又從來不現身,這就很為難了。

因為,既然其中大部份的「神」都宣稱是自己創造了人類,那麼自己又是無所不知的,那麼理當了解人類是很渺小又無能的,對於整個宇宙自然和環境的認知全靠肉體的感官,尤其是總要看得到,聽得到,甚至摸得到,才會確實相信的。

因此,非要人類相信自己的存在,那麼無所不能的「神」最簡單的方法,就是不時或者偶而「露個面」,甚而顯顯神蹟,這樣不是連「傳教」都省了,還有那個人類會不信神,那個人類敢不信神呢?

但是,萬能的神偏偏不這麼做,又要人類相信祂的存在,要遵守祂的戒律,卻又偏偏不肯公開現身,讓全人類相信;於是也就從來沒有人見過「神」。

也因此,就出現了各種不同的神,甚至同樣來自同一個源流的「神」,被相關宗教形容的也不同,甚至各種賞罰也不同,然後就互相攻擊,認為只有自己相信的「神」才是「唯一真神」,其他的都不是,更糟糕的甚至從拿刀拿矛到現今用大炮、火箭、只差沒動用核子武器來互相殘殺了。

神既然無所不知,又無所不能,更無所不在,那麼只是簡單的「現個身」,不就一切定案,所有紛爭都自然平息,然後全人類一起統統信仰唯一的神,這樣不是完全符合神的旨意嗎?

為什麼偏偏不呢?

是神做不到同時在全世界各地同時現身嗎?那這樣又如何能宣稱是「無所不在」呢?

這樣也不能宣稱是「無所不能」了。

當然,神如果連這樣的方式都不知道,那就更不是「無所不知」了!

好吧!

人類開始有宗教信仰,相信有各種「神祇」存在,居然從來沒有人真正見過神。

那麼,所有與「神」有關的各種傳說、神話、經典,各種傳教者宣稱的標語、講道以至各種荒謬絕倫的謊話、騙局,顯然全是出自「人嘴的兩片皮」,沒有一句是「神」公開對人類說的。

而既然全是人說的,不是神說的,那麼「神」究竟在那裡?又究竟都在幹什麼呢?為什麼始終就是偏偏不肯現身呢?

答案已經很明顯了吧?

因為,神根本不可能現身,不論是古代、現代或者未來,都不會現身的。

因為,「神」根本不存在。

不論古代或現代,所謂的「神」,不論名稱為何?全部都是人自己創造(應該說編造)出來的。

當然,人類最可貴的權利就是「自由」,宗教信仰也是自由的,所以,相信或不相信「神」也是自由的,無人可以干涉或強迫。

你,或者任何人相信不相信「神」的存在,我沒有意見,但是,從歷史的證據來看和思辨之後;我個人不相信「神」的存在!

註:以上只是方便述說的簡論;詳細資料請參閱第二部份。
 樓主| 發表於 2018-10-10 13:02:58 | 顯示全部樓層
誰見過神了?參考資料:

埃及的歷史悠久,是世界文明古國之一。西元前3100年出現統一的奴隸制國家。

至今考證的古埃及的神多達上千個。這種多神崇拜起源於原始社會的圖騰崇拜,在埃及統一之前的各個小國家裏,人們都崇拜各自不同的神。隨著美尼斯統一埃及全境,法老開始推行各自出身地的神,使其稱為主神,由全埃及共同崇拜。在古王國時期主神是鷹神荷魯斯,後來改為太陽神拉,中王國時期則主要崇拜阿蒙,新王國時期拉和阿蒙相結合,形成主神阿蒙拉。在國家統一崇拜主神的同時,各個地方(諾姆,相當於省)仍然崇拜原來地方的神。

埃及約90%的人口信仰伊斯蘭教遜尼派,約10%的人口信仰基督教的科普特正教、科普特天主教和希臘正教等教派。

蘇美的主神是天神安努,安努最重要的伴侶是南部的恩基、北部的恩利爾和金星之神伊什塔爾。太陽神叫烏圖,月神叫伊南娜,母親神叫娜姆,此外還有上百小神。每個神與一個城市相連。這些神的重要性也隨著這些城市政治上的興衰而變化。人是神用粘土做的,其目的在於服務神。假如神發怒的話他們就使用地震或風暴來懲罰人。蘇美人認為人只有在神的憐憫下才能生存。

蘇美的每個城市都有它自己特有的神及神學,並且隨著時間的變遷人們對神信念的變化,導致人們對神的刻畫也發生了變化,蘇美沒有集體的一個宗教。蘇美人的宗教擁有多神,同時擁有一個主神教。蘇美人的信仰是最早有記錄的信仰,它是後來美索不達米亞神話、宗教和占星學的源泉。蘇美人相信地面是一塊平板,天空是一個蓋。他們相信人死後會成為鬼魂不安地永遠在陰間遊蕩。他們的這種信仰還影響了世界上的其他人,懷特海曾說:「我們從兩河流域的閃族人那裡繼承了道德和宗教……」

亞述形成了以亞述城為中心的國家,開始了早亞述時期(約西元前3000年代末至前2000年代中葉)

帶有魔術性質的禮祀和儀式在亞述宗教中具有重要意義。和希臘諸神相象,亞述諸神的本性被理解爲易怒的,有虛榮心,心裏時常嫉妒,喜歡貢奉和犧牲。諸神權力都不大,是公社或城市的保護神。亞述帝國試圖將阿淑爾神奉爲最高神,但包括阿淑爾城在內的全體亞述人都反對。除諸神之外,亞述人還有無數迷信,數千種生活禁忌,以及對數十種惡鬼和精靈的崇拜。

蘇美爾宗教是美索不達米亞宗教最早的範本,其諸神譜系、崇拜儀式和經典文獻,在西元前18世紀以後,被阿卡得人的巴比倫宗教有改變地加以繼承,後又於西元前12世紀起為亞述人所沿襲。有動物崇拜的遺跡,神靈逐漸擬人化,多為半獸半人的形象。約西元前20世紀,宗教思想已經形成。諸神發展為各種類型:有無所不能而又遙不可及的高位神,如蒼天神安努、地神恩利勒、水神伊亞;有在自然現象中具有神秘力量的眾神,如月神欣、太陽神夏馬什、農業和春天之神杜木茲。在南方,重要神祇起初多為城邦諸神;在北方則是在宇宙間起作用的自然諸神。

西元前2234年可以作為巴比倫建立的年代

巴比倫眾多的神話和傳說主要見於《巴比倫史詩》。巴比倫人認為諸神安靜平和,均有秩序地住在廟宇中。他們將巴比倫的守護神馬爾杜克升為諸神之首。好戰的亞述人則認為諸神是反復無常、令人生畏的,主神是戰神阿舒爾,在亞述帝國全盛期(前8世紀),它取代了馬爾杜克的地位,被尊為創造世界和人類之神。美索不達米亞宗教認為神是超在的,也是內在的,諸神在廟中受到祭司的侍侯和人們的效忠,以及垂聽人們的祈求,都反映了他們在天上的樣式。有專職祭司和宏大的廟宇。主要崇拜內容為獻祭食物和衣服等;頌讚歌由宮廷樂師奉諸神之名而唱;祈禱由祭司擔任。宗教活動不僅限於崇拜儀式,還包括許多驅邪的法術以及觀兆、占卜等。對於靈魂的終局則抱悲觀態度,認為死後沒有審判,也沒有天堂可盼,靈魂永遠住在往而不返的陰間。美索不達米亞宗教和神話對於《聖經》特別是《舊約》有著明顯的影響。

當今的亞述人主要信仰基督教的東方亞述教會、迦勒底天主教和敘利亞正教。

印度存在過舊石器時代和新石器時代。印度文明是世界上最早的古文明之一,最遲在西元前2500年,印度河流域就有古代印度人創造的文明,由於最早發現該文明遺址的地方位於現在巴基斯坦境內的哈拉帕和摩亨佐-達羅,所以這個文明也被稱為印度河文明或者哈拉帕文明。不過該文明在西元前2000年左右的時候突然衰落,衰落的原因在考古界則莫衷一是。近代基因研究顯示印度人彼此的基因差異較小,可能是因為在古代遭遇過大天災使人口大幅減少的緣故。

西元前1500年左右,自印度西北部的雅利安人族群入侵印度西北部的印度河流域和北部的恆河流域,並與當地人結合,創造了經典的吠陀文化。而這一文明相對於印度河流域的印度河文明而言晚了幾個世紀,故與之相對地,一般稱之為恆河文明。

印度也是一個宗教色彩非常濃厚的國家,是眾多宗教的發源地,幾乎能在印度找到世界上所有的宗教,被稱為「宗教博物館」。

全印度約有80.5%的人口信仰印度教,其他的主要宗教團體還有伊斯蘭教(15%)、錫克教(1.9%)、耆那教,又因早期敘利亞基督教的傳入和近現代受到英國殖民統治,基督教(2.3%)盛行[83]。佛教起源於印度,如今在印度的影響力比較小,占總人口的5%。

猶太教崇拜獨一的真神(一神信仰,希伯來語:יהוה‎‎),是希伯來人內部的民族宗教。猶太教認為《塔木德》是僅次於《希伯來聖經》的經籍。當亞歷山大大帝徵服希伯來人的猶太原居地後,希伯來人也易名為猶太人並散落到希臘帝國各處,西元前3世紀,希臘化的埃及托勒密王朝君主托勒密二世,召集70多位懂希臘語的猶太人,集中整理猶太教文獻並譯成希臘語,即目前基督教使用的希臘語聖經中的舊約全書部份,所謂七十士譯本。後來猶太國被羅馬帝國徹底摧毀,猶太教位於耶路撒冷的聖殿被拆毀,只留下一段殘破的西牆(俗稱哭牆),猶太人散落到歐亞各地。

歷史上,猶太人曾面對多次毀滅性的災難和逼害。猶太人由於兩千多年一直分散在世界各地,語言、文字已經分化,只是靠著統一的宗教維繫其單一的民族性。基督宗教方面天主教教宗若望•保祿二世在近年,已承認曾對抗猶太教徒,造成了他們承受苦難的歷史。

猶太教(希伯來語:יהדות‎‎ Yahadut),中文曾俗稱挑筋教[a]或一賜樂業教,是在西元前西亞地區的遊牧民族希伯來人中產生的,是希伯來人的宗教、價值觀和生活方式。猶太教是一神論的宗教,其主要經典是包括妥拉(摩西五經)在內的塔納赫(即希伯來聖經,基督教及天主教稱為舊約聖經),以及包括口傳律法(密西拿)、口傳律法註釋(革馬拉)以及聖經註釋(米德拉什)在內的塔木德,對信奉猶太教的猶太人而言,猶太教是上帝和以色列人立約的關係。

相信耶和華是創天造地,獨一的真神。尊崇唯一的、超越一切的上帝:"以色列阿,你要聽。耶和華我們上帝是獨一的主。

猶太人期待彌賽亞為個人與社群帶來獎賞,也期盼他的到來會觸動並影響個別的猶太人及整個族群和全人類。這個觀念首次出現在西元前931年所羅門王去世。之後猶太人經歷國家分裂跟滅亡,所有的猶太人都盼望有一天能在所羅門王後裔的領導下恢復以往的榮燿,屆時將是太平盛世,不再有飢餓、戰爭、疾病、痛苦。這也是猶太人無法接受耶穌是彌賽亞的主要原因,因為基督降生後太平盛世並沒有到來,猶太人依然過了幾千年流離失所的日子。但是許多基督徒喜歡強調猶太人不願意接受耶穌是彌賽亞,是因為耶穌出身貧苦,像常人一樣死亡,不喜歡猶太人以身分來斷定基督不是彌賽亞的說法。

西元前800年新的希臘文明的誕生,出現荷馬史詩等希臘文作品。當時的希臘城邦在地中海沿岸建立起自己的殖民地,成功抵禦波斯帝國入侵,並發展出燦爛的希臘文化。

古希臘多神信仰發展年代大約在西元前八紀到西元五、六世紀之間。根據研究[來源請求]古希宗教不是單獨形成的體系,而最主要是傳承自遠古印歐民族的宗教信仰,因此古希臘宗教的淵源要比荷馬史詩來的年代早,古希臘人的宗教內容相當豐富與繁雜,因為祂是原始自然神祇崇拜[1],大大小小的神祇不少,祂們其中的職掌有些有重疊。古希臘宗教其實是擁有綜合性與多元性起源的一項原始信仰,許多古希臘人公認並且信仰是為十二尊主要(奧林匹斯神)男神與女神(宙斯、波塞冬、赫拉、得墨忒耳、雅典娜、阿瑞斯、阿芙洛狄忒、阿波羅、阿耳忒彌斯、赫淮斯托斯、赫耳墨斯,以及或是赫斯提亞或是狄俄倪索斯)

佛教由古印度(今尼泊爾境內)的悉達多•喬答摩35歲時創立,關於悉達多太子的生年說法有二,佛教開始的時間也有兩種不一的說法,一種認為是在西元前543年5月月圓日,另一則是認為在前589年或前588年。當時悉達多在畢缽羅樹(佛教信徒尊稱菩提樹)下悟道,後來走遍恆河兩岸向人傳教。當初隨他修行的五位大臣接受了悉達多的教導之後,成為比丘,也就是第一批僧伽[13]。社會各階層和各種身分的人都來聽他演講而成為他的弟子。他在其後的幾十年中四處遊行,招收了許多弟子,佛教影響逐漸擴張。他在80歲的高齡逝世(佛教稱之為涅槃)後,被尊為釋迦牟尼佛。

天主教(拉丁語:Catholicismus;英語:Catholicism),又稱為公教會,是對羅馬公教會(天主教會)發展而來的一系列基督教神學信仰、哲學理論、禮儀傳統、倫理綱常、精神意志之總括,為基督教最大宗派。其拉丁文本意為「普世的」。另一個經常並用的名稱是「大公教會」,通常用來概括基督教會的普遍特徵,以用來區別狹義的、與聖座共融的公教會,即天主教會[1]。在大多數情況中,天主教是天主教會的代稱。

基督教(英語:Christianity)是一個信仰耶穌基督為神及救世主的一神論宗教。發源於西亞的巴勒斯坦地區,以《聖經》為最高經典,信徒稱為基督徒,基督徒組成的團體則稱為教會或基督教會。由於部分教義源流自猶太教,因而被認為是亞伯拉罕諸教之一,現今亦與伊斯蘭教、佛教共同視為世界三大宗教。其分為天主教、正教會、新教等三大宗派,但因歷史發展的緣故,漢語所稱的「基督教」常專指新教,基督教整體則又另以「基督宗教」稱之。

基督教的信仰核心為相信三位一體的獨一神(漢語亦譯為上帝或天主)創造了世界,並按照神自己的形像造人,由人來管理世界[1],後來人犯罪墮落,帶來了死亡;聖父派遣其子耶穌降世為人,在其在世33年的最後,為世人的罪被釘死在十字架上,在三天後從死裏復活而後升天,並賜下聖靈與信徒同在;他的死付上了罪的贖價,使一切信他的人得到拯救,並在神內有永遠的生命。

1054年,基督教分裂為公教(在中國稱天主教)和正教(在中國稱東正教)。天主教以羅馬教廷為中心,教導權主要於教宗與大公會議;東正教以君士坦丁堡為中心,教會最高權力屬於東羅馬帝國的皇帝。

道教

至東漢末年,張道陵在西南蜀中稱得太上老君(老子)「授以三天正法,命為天師」,並仿佛經造作道書二十五篇,從而創立了正一道(俗稱天師道、史稱五斗米道)。在中原,也有張角創立了太平道,宣稱「蒼天已死,黃天當立」,組織民眾舉行反抗東漢王朝的起義。正一道和太平道的出現,道教開始成為有嚴密思想體系和組織制度的教團。在這種社會背景下,訂定道教經書的主要創始人物張道陵綜合傳統的鬼神崇拜、神仙思想、陰陽術數,巫術並於與漢代所崇尚黃老道家的思潮逐漸融合;道教教派也於此時形成,逐步成熟成為道教的宗教形態。

伊斯蘭(al-Islam)系阿拉伯語音譯,西元七世紀由麥加人穆罕默德在阿拉伯半島上首先興起,原意為“順從”、“和平”,又譯作伊斯倆目,指順從和信仰創造宇宙的獨一無二的主宰安拉及其意志,以求得兩世的和平與安寧。信奉伊斯蘭教的人統稱為“穆斯林”(Muslim,意為“順從者”與伊斯蘭“Islam”是同一個詞根)

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