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Man Creates Gods, Man Destroys Gods 人創造神,人毀滅神

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發表於 2018-10-5 02:03:00 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
本帖最後由 赫生童子 於 2018-10-6 13:30 編輯

Man Creates Gods, Man Destroys Gods

Author :Chang Kai-Chi

Perspective about human faith from the "Pantheon" in Rome to "Cappadocia" in Turkey

No matter how well you know about Greek mythology, the chance to see the stars at night, or your interest in Western astrology, the names of the constellations come from the ancient Greek god stories.  And ancient Rome inherited from Greek : multi-divine belief. For example, the god Zeus was called " Jupiter " in Rome, until the third century AD.   Then the Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity because of political considerations. And before Theodosius I officially became the Christian-- the Roman Empire was always a "multi-gods worshiper" and was very repulsive to other religions. In old times, all kinds of cruel means were used to persecute the pagans, especially Christians, the most seen in many historical records and movies. The famous majestic building, the "Roman Amphitheater", was the place to torture the arrested Christians (regardless of age or gender) who will be dragged to the center of the square and then released to deliberately starving tigers, lions and many other beasts. This act was to entertain all Roman nobles, officials and civilian seeing how Christians were bitten by beasts and became animal food.  This led the miserable period before Roman Empire legalized the Christianity belief.

The Roman Empire was once glorious, and its territory spanned Europe, Asia and Africa. It reached the present Turkey, Syria, Jordan and other places;

Centuries before "The Emperor Constantine", pagans in the Roman Empire were illegally and guilty. They were among the caves of the most famous "Cappadocia" volcanic terrain in Turkey today. It still retains the hidden caves that Christians excavated in order to escape the arrest away from Roman soldiers. It can hide up to 10,000 people. These underground caves are not only well-connected, but also have a wide range of connections:  there are 9 floors deep underground, with residences and central kitchens, the churches, combined with grains and clear water storage rooms, plus the tunnel-like mazes. Some of the ramps are more than ten meters long, but they are so narrow that they must bend and walk in order to pass through--the purpose is for Long-term hiding, some parts still retained religious murals from 1 to 2000 years ago.

Later, because the mother of "The Emperor Constantine" and many of his generals secretly believed in Christianity, in order to consolidate political power--- "The Emperor Constantine" finally promulgated the "Milan Decree" then Christianity became A legal religion.  He himself was also baptized into a Christian before death; after the arrival of Diodosius I officially changed Christianity into Roman Catholicism. And since then, Rome has been the center of faith in Western Christian civilization. .

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However, with two special locations and historical data, we could observe most absurd scene of humanity in religious beliefs;

Please take a look at the relevant information compiled from the Internet:

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The Pantheon was built in 27 BC to celebrate the victory of the Augustus war of Augustus, but the original temple was destroyed by fire in 80 AD. In the era of Hadrian's Emperor in 120 AD, the Pantheon was reconstructed with the design ideas of Agripa, and the words M•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•TERTIVM•FECIT were engraved on the mountain flower of the new temple colonnade, meaning "The son of Lucius and the third governor, Marcus Agriba, built the temple." The reconstructed Pantheon added a dome building that was hailed by Michelangelo as "the design of angels." Pan of the Pantheon of Pantheon refers to all, then is the meaning of God, referring to all the gods of Rome (the Pantheon was originally built to sin not be a god). The Pantheon is the most important monument in Rome. It is the only preserved building of the Roman Empire. After eighteen centuries of vicissitudes, the bronze doors and arches are completely intact. Byzantine Emperor Foca gave the Pantheon as a gift to Pope Bonifacio IV in 608, and the latter changed it to a church to worship the Madonna. Because it was taught as the sacred church of the Virgin, it escaped in the cleansing action of the Roman eclipse in the Middle Ages and became the best preserved in the original buildings of the Roman era.

The Pantheon was built in 27 BC and rebuilt in 118 AD. In 609, it was renamed the Church of St. Mary the Martyrs. In Year 663, the Byzantine emperor removed the roof tiles. In 1305, the Holy See moved to Avignon. It became a poultry market. And in 1632, the copper of the porch was taken to make the Eucharist in St. Peter's Church. The Pantheon is located in the Roman province of Lazio, Italy. It is also known as the Pantheon and the Pantheon Temple. It is a religious building in ancient Rome and an important architectural achievement in the battlefield. It was founded by the Roman Empire in the 27th century BC. Built in Ba Xing, it was rebuilt by Emperor Adriano in the 120th to 125th AD. Although it has a long history, it still retains original appearance on the copper gate and the arch roof. In 609, the Byzantine emperor dedicated the Pantheon to the Pope Benedict. On the 4th, the Pope Benedict IV converted the Pantheon into a church and changed its name to the Church of the Virgin and the Martyrs (San Maria ad Martyres), dedicated to the Madonna of the Immaculate Conception, and today it became the official name of the Pantheon. .

Pantheon - Architectural Style

Pantheon in Greek means "all gods", the temple dedicated to the main gods of the universe. The whole building is made of concrete and consists of volcanic ash and tuff near Napoli. It was a considerable construction project at the time.

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The Underground City of Cappadocia, Turkey

This underground city is the second largest underground city in Cappadocia, with 9 floors, but the tour is only open to the 5th floor, and the building age is no unknown. In the 1st century, Christians avoided the persecution of the Roman army. In the 8th and 9th centuries, Christians retreated from the persecution of the Muslim army. They barely walked between the passages. Gray stone walls and rounded stone walls, although the space is extremely dark and narrow, all kinds of life essential functions such as kitchen, bedroom, storage room, toilet, corral, grave, chapel, and even ventilation and defense facilities are all in place. I was moved by the perseverance of the people who at that time expressed their belief in defending their own beliefs. The cobblestone gate in the dungeon is a defensive facility that blocks the entrance when the enemy invades, preventing the intruder from entering the next level. There is a space around the stone gate, which allows several people to work together to move the stone gate. However, after the stone gate blocks the entrance, the space outside is not enough to stand so many people. The enemy naturally cannot move the stone gate. The round hole in the center of the stone gate is used to shoot the arrow on enemy.

Goreme Open Air Museum

Goreme means you cannot see here--to make Arabs unable to see Christians hiding in the cave community. Since the beginning of Christianity, this area is the most devout place. At that time, Christians hid in stone caves in order to escape persecution. Later, after the legalization of Christianity, it became a monastery area because it was quiet and secret. There are about 30 cave churches in this area, all built by Christians who avoided Arabs after the 9th century. Now we can see murals in the open chapel, which is a biblical story.

The Goreme Open Air Museum, a world heritage site of the United Nations Educational and Educational Organization, is located 1.5 km east of the town of Goreme, and it takes about 40 minutes to walk. The landscape focuses on cave churches and monasteries left over from the 4th to 12th centuries, as well as colored murals in the caves. The underground city of Derinkuyu is eight stories underground and has more than 10 kilometers of passages. There are countless passages and rooms. Delin Kuyou is said to be the largest underground city here. There is a wine cellar and a sheep house on the ground floor. The second floor is a reservoir. It also has a school in the past, and even the remains of the church. The living function is quite complete and there is complete ventilation.

Residents here do not live in underground cities, but this is where the East and West meet, the war continues, ancient Christians in order to escape the invasion of Rome, Arabs, build a huge underground city, resisting nephews. The so-called underground city, that is, residents use the characteristics of weathering of volcanic rocks to engrave underground refuge.

Underground City, Telling Sad History--

Cappadocia is both a natural wonder, and the human history reveals a faint sorrow. The Roman army and the Muslim forces used force to suppress Christians. Many believers fled to this place; they found that the rock of Cappadocia was very suitable for chiseling, and it was hidden in the rock to escape the pursuit of the Roman army. So they transformed the rock into a home, a church, and even an underground city. It’s no wonder that religious murals are often found in rocks.


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The Bible indicates: God created people. When God is angry, he will destroy people (via sky fires and floods). Among them, the most horrible floods, only the Noah family and some animals and plants survived in the world, and others were drowned.

But what is the historical fact?

The Roman Empire, which originally believed in polytheism, began to do everything possible to eliminate paganism and kill Christians. (So the "Pantheon" was built to please all the gods from Greece then Christians in the east of Turkey had to hide, live in caves and stick to their beliefs). Later, when Diodosius I (379-395) began to define Christianity as the state religion, it was to "destroy the hundred religions and honor God." Then the Romans began to turn around to eradicate paganism other than Christianity, including the original "Greek polytheism" that has always been believed in. Following the burned all kinds of "pagan" temples. Fortunately, these "Pantheons" survived because it was enshrined in the presence of the Virgin although some very important antiquities were still swept away and re-casted into Christianity Relics.

After the Ottoman Empire Sultan Mehmet II invaded the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire "Constantinople" in 1453, today's Turkey has become the Arab world. Local people have all been forced to convert into Islam. Under either the Qur'an and Sword oath, led Christians started to hide everywhere. Under such circumstance,  the caves in Cappadocia once again played a role in asylum; in two large-scale slaughters, Christians did successfully escape.

However, the point is that history clearly tells us people create god, people destroyed god, and then create new gods agian. Therefore, Rome in today is the center of Catholicism in the world--Roman Catholic Church (worships the Virgin Mary) it desperately eliminate paganism, killing heresy, and even set up an "inquisition" when owned the political power historically. Not to mention the scientific discoveries were also regarded as heretics. The most famous ones were Copernicus and Galileo. --- At the same time, it is also the most shameful "hunting witch action" in history.

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Then, the vast majority of the people who believe in Christianity in Turkey now have 90% Islam conversion and less than 10% in Christianity plus other religions;

Is Religion or Religious Belief Forever?

Look at the more ancient Egypt, what do they originally believe in today? Greece, which also believes in many gods, now believes in "Greek Orthodoxy". Are the many gods they originally believed in nowadays? And Rome is not the same?

People created God. And in the torrent of time, they began to destroy the old gods, kill those who refuse to believe in the new god. Further changing into other gods belief, they destroy the present God and killed a lot of "hard-cores" who don't change.

Therefore, Protagonist is the Human.  About God----just a Cheap Tool for Mankind.

Note 1: It is not known when Constantinus I Magnus (272-337) began to believe in Christianity. The most common saying is that on the eve of the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Constantine saw the cross-like flame on the sky and the words: "This is a sign of defeating enemies." No matter how or when Constantine became a Christian, he was always keen on the development of Christianity. One of his earliest actions was the promulgation of the Milan Decree, according to which Christianity became a legal, free religion. The decree also required the return of the property of the Christian Church that was confiscated during the previous persecution period, stipulating that Sunday is Worship day.

Note 2: I have been to the "Pantheon" in Rome and the "Cappadocia" in Turkey, especially "Cappadocia". I also specially "knee-bend walking" into the maze-like underground passages.

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 樓主| 發表於 2018-10-5 02:09:53 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 赫生童子 於 2018-10-6 00:14 編輯

人創造神,人毀滅神

作者:張開基

翻譯員:北展昭

從羅馬「萬神殿」與土耳其「卡帕多奇亞」看人類的信仰

不論你對希臘神話了解得如何,夜晚有機會看到星星,或者你對西洋占星術有興趣的話,那些星座的名稱正是來自古老的希臘諸神的名號及故事;而古羅馬則承襲了希臘這種多神信仰;譬如天神「宙斯」在羅馬稱為「朱彼得」,一直到西元三世紀的「君士坦丁大帝」因為政治考量改信基督教,以及迪奧多西一世時正式將基督教改為羅馬國教之前,羅馬帝國一直是「多神信仰」的,而且非常排斥其他宗教,所以用盡各種殘酷的手段來迫害異教徒,特別是基督徒,在很多歷史紀錄、電影中看到的最有名的雄偉建築--「羅馬圓形競技場」,其中豢養了很多虎豹獅熊等猛獸,被逮捕的基督徒,不論年齡、性別,都會被拖到廣場中央,然後放出刻意讓牠們挨餓好幾天的猛獸,就是為了讓所有羅馬貴族、官員和民眾來欣賞基督徒是如何被猛獸撕咬,生吞活剝當成食物;這是羅馬人的尋常娛樂,這也是基督教在羅馬帝國中尚未合法前最黑暗悲慘的時期;

羅馬帝國曾經輝煌一時,疆域橫跨歐亞非三洲,其中在亞洲部份,勢力達到現在的土耳其、敘利亞、約旦等地;

在「君士坦丁大帝」之前的數百年間,只要是在羅馬帝國疆域內的異教徒都是非法的死罪,因此在現今土耳其境內最有名的「卡帕多其亞」火山地形的洞穴中,仍然保留當時基督徒為了逃避羅馬士兵的逮捕追殺所挖掘的藏身洞穴,最多可以躲藏上萬人,這些地下洞穴不但四通八達,連接範圍廣大,而且深入地下有9層樓的深度,其中不但有住所、中央廚房、教堂、糧食清水儲藏室,還有彎彎曲曲迷宮似的地道,有些甬道長達十幾公尺,卻狹窄到必須屈身蹲行才能來往通過----其目的都是為了長期躲藏,有些部份還保留了1—2000年前的宗教壁畫。

後來,因為「君士坦丁大帝」的母親以及手下許多將領都偷偷地信奉了基督教,為了鞏固權位,「君士坦丁大帝」終於頒布了《米蘭敕令》,根據這部敕令,基督教成為一種合法的、自由的宗教,他自己則在臨終前受洗成了基督徒;之後到了迪奧多西一世時正式將基督教改為羅馬國教,從此,一直到如今,羅馬都是西方基督教文明的信仰中心。

但是,藉由兩個特殊的地點,其人文歷史和圖片,我們也可以看到人類在宗教信仰上最荒謬絕倫的一幕;

請先看看從網路整理出來的相關資料:

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萬神殿(Pantheon),西元前27年為慶祝奧古斯都大帝的亞克興海戰勝利而興建,但是這座最初的廟宇在西元80年被大火焚毀。西元120年哈德連大 帝時代,用阿格裏巴的設計思路重建萬神殿,並在新廟柱廊的山花上刻上了M•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•TERTIVM•FECIT的字樣,意即“呂 奇烏斯的兒子、三度執政官瑪爾庫斯•阿格裏巴建造此廟”。重建後的萬神殿增建了圓頂建築,被米開朗基羅讚歎為“天使的設計”。萬神殿Pantheon的 Pan是指全部,theon是神的意思,指供奉羅馬全部的神(萬神殿當初是為了不得罪任何一神而建的)。萬神殿是羅馬最重要的古跡,它是唯一保存完整的羅馬帝國時期的建築物,經歷了十八個世紀的滄 桑後,銅門和拱門屋頂完整如初。拜占廷皇帝福卡於西元608年將萬神殿作為禮物贈給教皇博尼法喬四世,後者將它改為教堂,用以供奉殉難聖母。由於它被教會作為聖母的祭堂,所以在中世紀消 滅羅馬異教痕跡的清洗行動中逃過一劫,成為羅馬時代獨創的建築物中保存得最好的。現在的萬神殿是為義大利帶來榮燿的藝術家拉斐爾和為義大利統一作出了貢獻 的埃曼紐爾二世、溫貝爾特一世等人的陵墓。

萬神殿建造於西元前27年,西元118年又重新建造,609年將此改名為聖瑪利亞殉教者教堂,663年拜占庭皇帝把屋頂上的瓦搬走,1305年教廷移駐亞 維農,這裡成為家禽市場,1632年把門廊的銅拿去製作聖彼得教堂的聖體傘。萬神殿位於義大利拉齊奧大區羅馬省,又稱萬神廟和潘提翁神殿,是古羅馬時期的宗教建築,更是戰場地區重要 的建築成就,於西元前27年由羅馬帝國阿格裡巴興建,後在西元120年至125年由阿德裡亞諾皇帝重建,雖然歷史悠久但在銅門和拱門屋頂仍保留原貌;西元 609年拜占庭皇帝將萬神殿獻給羅馬教宗卜尼法斯四世,羅馬教宗卜尼法斯四世將萬神殿改建成為一座教堂,並更名為聖母與諸殉道者教堂(Santa Maria ad Martyres),供奉殉難聖母像,沿襲至今日成為萬神殿的正式名稱。

萬神殿-建築風格

萬神殿在希臘文中 Pantheon意為『所有的神』,供奉宇宙主要神祗的神殿,整體建築以混凝土構成,以那波利附近的火山灰加上凝灰岩所組成,在當時可說是相當大的建築工 程。

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土耳其「卡帕多奇亞」的地下城

此地下城是卡帕多奇亞第二大的地下城共9層,但觀光只開放到第5層,建築年代已不 可考。西元1世紀基督徒為躲避羅馬軍隊的迫害而避居之所,到了西元8,9世紀基督 徒為躲避回教軍隊的迫害而再次避居之所;勉強於通道間彎身匍匐前進,觸目盡是灰 白石壁與方圓工整的坑道石洞,空間雖說極端陰暗窄小,各種生活必備機能如廚房、 臥室、儲藏室、廁所、畜欄、墳墓、禮拜堂以至通風與防禦設施等卻都齊備,令人由 衷感動於當時人們為捍衛一己之信念信仰所展現如金石般的堅誠毅力。地下城中的大 圓石門是在敵人入侵時堵住入口,讓侵入者無法進入下一層的防禦設施。石門旁有一 個迴轉的空間,讓幾個人合力搬動石門,但石門堵住入口後外面的空間不足以站這麼 多人,敵人自然就無法搬開石門,石門中央的圓孔是用來射箭驅敵的。

哥樂美(Goreme)露天博物 館

哥樂美的意思是You cannot see here 能讓阿拉伯人看不到躲在洞穴社區中的基督徒。 基督教從萌芽起,此區域就是最虔誠之地,當時基督徒為了逃避迫害而躲藏在石洞中 ,後來基督教合法化後,因為此區域很幽靜隱密,所以變成修道院區域。此區約有 30座洞穴教堂,全是9世紀後躲避阿拉伯的基督徒所建的,現在開放的小教堂中我們 可以看到壁畫,都是一段聖經故事

哥樂美露天博物館,這博物館被列名為聯合國文教組織的世界遺產,位在哥樂美小鎮東方1.5公里 處,走路約40分鐘。景觀重點是四世紀到12世紀間,基督教 遺留下來的洞穴教堂與修道院,還有洞穴裡的彩色壁畫。德林庫優(derinkuyu)地下城市,深達地下八層樓,超過10公里 的通道,內有數不清的通道和房間,德林庫優據說是這兒規模最大的地下城市。 地下一樓有酒窖、羊舍,地下二樓是蓄水池,還保有昔日學校,甚至可見教堂的遺跡,生活機能相當完整,也有完整的通風設備。據說,這兒一度容納1萬人,居住了半年。

這兒的居民平時不住在地下城市,但這兒位居東西方交會處,戰爭不斷,古代基督教徒為了躲避羅馬、阿拉伯人的侵略,建立一座龐大的地下城,抵抗外侮。所謂的 地下城市,即居民利用火山岩風化的特性,刻鑿出地下避難所。

地下城市 訴說哀傷歷史

卡帕多奇亞既是自然奇觀,人文歷史隱約透露出淡淡的哀傷。羅馬軍隊和回教勢力先後使用武力鎮壓基督教徒,許多教徒紛紛逃難至此;它們發現,卡帕多奇亞的岩 石非常適合鑿屋,而且隱居在岩石裡,可以躲避羅馬軍隊的追殺。於是,他們將岩石改造成住家、教堂,甚至建設地下城市,這也難怪在岩石中常常發現宗教壁畫。

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聖經上說:神創造了人,神發怒時也會毀滅人(包括用天火和大洪水),其中以大洪水最恐怖,全世界只剩下諾亞一家人以及一些動植物,其他人統統淹死了。

但是,歷史的事實是什麼?

原來信仰多神教的羅馬帝國一開始是竭盡所能的消滅異教,殘殺基督徒(所以,蓋了「萬神殿」來討好所有的源自希臘的諸神,也所以在東邊土耳其境內的基督徒只好躲藏在洞穴中生活,並且堅持他們的信仰)。後來當迪奧多西一世(379年-395年)將基督教定為國教開始,就是「罷絀百教,獨尊上帝」了,然後,羅馬人開始轉頭來剷除基督教以外的異教,包括原本一向信奉的「希臘多神教」,燒毀各種『異教』的神殿,連「萬神殿」也差點慘遭毒手,因為其中供奉了聖母而倖存下來,但是,一些非常重要的古物卻還是被掃除,重新鑄造基督教的聖物。

1453年鄂圖曼帝國蘇丹穆罕默德二世攻陷東羅馬帝國的首都「君士坦丁堡」之後,現今的土耳其變成阿拉伯世界,當地人民全部被強迫改信伊斯蘭教,同樣是「古蘭經」和「彎刀」任選其一,於是,堅信上帝的基督徒又開始東躲西藏,於是卡帕多其亞的洞穴再次發揮庇護作用;在兩次大規模的躲藏行動中,竟然真的因此逃過劫難,沒有被發現-----------

但是,真正的重點是;歷史明白的告訴我們:人創造了神,人也毀滅了神,然後再創造新的神,所以,羅馬今天是全球天主教的信仰中心(從基督教分裂出來的天主教又稱「羅馬公教」,崇拜聖母),然後當天主教得勢之後,同樣是拼命的消滅異教,殘殺異端,甚至成立「宗教裁判所」,連科學發現也被當成異端,最有名的就是哥白尼和伽利略----同時也展開腥風血雨,史上最惡名昭彰的「獵巫行動」。

然後,原本絕大多數人民信奉基督教的土耳其,如今有百分之九十改信伊斯蘭教,信奉基督教和其他宗教的不到百分之十;

宗教或者宗教信仰是永遠的嗎?

看看更古老的埃及,他們原本信奉的多神如今安在?同樣信奉多神的希臘,如今是信奉「希臘正教」,他們原本信奉的多神如今安在?而羅馬不也一樣?

人們創造神,然後在時間的洪流中,他們改信其他神時,就開始毀滅舊神,殘殺死不肯信奉新神的人,然後下次再改信別的神時,他們又毀滅現今的神,再殘殺一大堆不知道變通的「頑固份子」。

所以,人才是主角,神-----只是廉價的玩具而已。

註1:君士坦丁大帝(Constantinus I Magnus,272—337)究竟何時開始信奉基督教我們不得而知。最通常的一種說法是在穆爾維大橋戰役(Battle of the Milvian Bridge)的前夕,君士坦丁看到天空上閃燿著十字架樣的火舌與這樣的話:“這是你克敵的跡象。”不 管 君士坦丁怎樣或何時成為基督信徒的,他總是非常熱衷於基督教的發 展。他最早期的行動之一就是頒佈《米蘭敕令》,根據這部敕令,基督教成為一種合法的、自由的宗教。 敕令還要求歸還先前迫害時期沒收的基督教教會的財產,規定星期天為禮拜日。

註2:羅馬「萬神殿」和土耳其「卡帕多奇亞」,我都實地去過,尤其是「卡帕多奇亞」,我還特地「蹲行」鑽進迷宮似的地下通道。


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發表於 2018-10-5 07:48:39 | 顯示全部樓層
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